Hormuzd Rassam: Balawat: Heinrich Schliemann: Troy: Herodotus lost Persian army: Peleset / Philistine: I would go so far as to say that even the certainties of the past are apt to be rewritten to suit political agendas. The worst of the revisionists are those who prefer to rewrite history to suit their own political ideologies. In "PC Mind Control and Rewriting History" I pointed out that there is quite a lot of historical revisionism taking place in the world today, especially as it relates to Israel and the Bible. Discounting deliberate propaganda, people do have personal opinions and viewpoints which are reflected in the content of what they speak or write. The job of archaeologists and historians, is to sift through the hyperbole, and get as close to the facts of history as possible.
We all know that the winners and losers of a battle write completely different stories about the events that unfolded. We call those records historical records, and we in this day and age form opinions about who was right or wrong in any given circumstance. Historical records are always biased.
That they are biased is to be expected, for they are written by people, and discounting deliberate propaganda, people do have personal opinions and viewpoints which are reflected in the content of what they speak or write.
The job of archaeologists and historians, is to sift through the hyperbole, and get as close to the facts of history as possible. There is a lot to be learned by studying history and according to WikiAnswers, it was George Santayana who said: Those who do not learn the lessons of history are condemned to repeat them?
In answer to the questions, 'What are the lessons of history?' Gerda Lerner said:
What we do about history matters. The often repeated saying that those who forget the lessons of history are doomed to repeat them has a lot of truth in it. But what are 'the lessons of history'? The very attempt at definition furnishes ground for new conflicts. History is not a recipe book; past events are never replicated in the present in quite the same way. Historical events are infinitely variable and their interpretations are a constantly shifting process. There are no certainties to be found in the past. (originally at ...wisdomquotes.com/cat_history.html)
It is a difficult thing indeed to merely read historical records. One is constantly viewing those time and event specific records through the lens of one's broader knowledge and personal perspective. Hence it is stated in the reference above, that "their interpretations are a constantly shifting process. There are no certainties to be found in the past".
I would go so far as to say that even the certainties of the past are apt to be rewritten to suit political agendas. I wrote an article some time ago in which I pointed out that there is quite a lot of historical revisionism taking place in the world today, especially as it relates to Israel (and of course the Bible).
The origins of the people of Palestine are in fact known. They were originally mercenaries working for the Egyptians. They were not native to the area. After the destruction of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, there were many different peoples deposited in Israel by the Assyrians. That process was repeated after the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BCE, and again in AD 70 when Jerusalem was once again destroyed. Current day Palestinians formerly belonged to the Turkish Empire and are a mix of peoples from different places.
Despite these certainties of history there are those with certain agendas and those who ignorantly follow the leader, who would have us believe that the Palestinians are the original inhabitants of Palestine. This claim is contrary to known history, but as is demonstrated in all totalitarian states, history is whatever the dictators say it is.
The Philistines did not 'settle' in Palestine until sometime after the reign of Rehoboam, son of Solomon. Prior to that time and for many centuries previously, they were mercenaries of the Egyptians. The Philistines hail from the Aegean Islands, and consisted of many different groups, and it is thought that they got their name from the group called the 'Peleset'.(PC Mind Control and Rewriting History)
Although the Anti-Semitic and Anti-Bible Political Crowd keep insisting that what the Bible says is wrong, and that Israel was in fact an Arab nation, new archaeological discoveries demonstrate that not to be so.
Slowly, as more excavations bring to light new material, the biblical record continues to gain solid historical backing. So far, archaeology has confirmed the existence of the following kings of Israel and Judah: Omri, Ahab, Jeroboam II, Jehu, Pekah, Hoshea, Ahaz, Hezekiah and Manasseh. Now David is also placed in this growing list of historically confirmed kings and no longer viewed as a myth.
The City of David has been an active archaeological site since the 1920s. Tons of artifacts have been pulled from the site. These artifacts include pottery, evidence of city walls, and (just last year) a clay tablet. The tablet could be the oldest known written document found in Jerusalem. Back in 2005, archaeologist Eilat Mazar announced that she and her team discovered the actual Palace of King David. The Hebrew Bible states that King David was the second king of the Kingdom of Israel.
2. King Herodís Tomb
In 2007, Israeli archaeologist, Ehud Netzer, announced that he and his team discovered the tomb of King Herod. Netzez, the leader of the excavation, said that his team was able to piece together "a monument of 25 meters high, 75 feet high, very elegant, which fits Herodís taste and status." Archaeologists say it is one of the greatest finds of the decade.
3. The Stone Dead Sea "Scroll"
In July 2008, the Biblical Archaeological Review published an article about a rare type of text. It was referred to as a stone scroll because it is a stone tablet with the text written in ink. The 187-lined text contains several Biblical phrases and possess a very apocalyptic tone. Many believe that this text reveals new insight into the ancient Jewish and Christian concept of the messiah.
4. The site of David and Goliath
In an archaeological excavation in the Elah Valley, archaeologists claimed in 2009 that they found the Elah Fortress. The fortress has been mystery for over 150 years. Archaeologists found the two gates just as it was described in the Bible, confirming their belief. The site is still under excavation today in hopes of finding more artifacts and evidence of the Biblical account of David and Goliath.
5. The Parting of the Red Sea
Just this past year, a team of scientists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado studied the possibility of the parting of the Red Sea. By studying ancient maps, computer models and archaeological records, the group concluded:
"The simulations match fairly closely with the account in Exodus. The parting of the waters can be understood through fluid dynamics. The wind moves the water in a way thatís in accordance with physical laws, creating a safe passage with water on two sides and then abruptly allowing the water to rush back in."
This conclusion seems to be an accordance with the parting of the Red Sea scene as written in Exodus. However, the scientist conducting the study did not state that the parting of the Red Sea event happened exactly as written in Exodus. They only assert that under the right conditions, such an event was possible.
1st Temple seal found in City of David ( Feb 2008 Originally at ...jpost.com)
An ancient seal bearing an archaic Hebrew inscription dating back to the 8th century BCE has been uncovered in an archeological excavation in Jerusalem's City of David, the Israel Antiquities Authority announced Thursday. The find reveals that by 2,700 years ago, clerks and merchants had already begun to add their names to the seals instead of the symbols that were used in earlier centuries.
Archaeologist claims: Israelites could read 3000 years ago (May or may no longer work - ...web.israelinsider.com/Articles/Culture/6988.htm)
Scholars say the discovery by Pittsburgh archaeologist Ron E. Tappy, a professor at the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, is the most concrete evidence that Israelites were literate as early as the 10th century B.C.
"This is very rare. This stone will be written about for many years to come," Tappy said Wednesday at a news conference. "This makes it very historically probable there were people in the 10th century (B.C.) who could write."
Archaeologist in Israel says she's found king's palace Sunday, December 04, 2005 By Scott Wilson (originally at The Washington Post)
Israeli archaeologist Eilat Mazar believes the evidence she has uncovered during months of excavation and biblical comparison points to an extraordinary discovery...She believes she has found the palace of King David....Some archaeologists believe Jerusalem was no more than a tiny hilltop village when it served as David's capital. The discovery of a palace or other large public building from David's time would strengthen the opposing view that he and his son, Solomon, presided over a civilization grander than the collection of rural clans some historians say made up the Jewish kingdom.
Was King David real or a Myth? Read: King David: Man or Myth? by Mario Seiglie (originally at ...ucgstp.org)
We can't do too much when it comes to historical perspectives that are based in political agendas, but when it comes to the issue of archaeological evidence, as time moves on, more and more becomes available, and with each new discovery, comes a rewriting of the previous perspectives.
Recently I published an article about some ancient Egyptian coins that support the Bible claim that the Israeli Patriarch Joseph held a position of power in the Egyptian court. Like the previous discoveries in Jerusalem, this discovery adds weight to the Biblical Narratives about the History of the Jews.
Recently there was another discovery made that while on the surface of it, does not directly add weight to anything in the Bible about Israel, it does give weight to the credibility of the ancient writer Herodotus.
Archaeologists uncover 'lost desert army' (originally at ...news.ninemsn.com.au/world/969698/archaeologists-uncover-lost-desert-army?cmp=nl_news_11november2009_14&mch=newsletter)
Archaeologists claim to have discovered the remains of an ancient Persian army that got lost in a desert sandstorm 2500 years ago.
For centuries the story of the 50,000-strong army losing their way in the Sahara Desert was assumed to be an ancient legend until hundreds of bones were uncovered in western Egypt.
The Greek historian Herodotus wrote an account of the lost army, which served the Persian king Cambyses, son of Cyrus the Great.
Herodotus said the army was sent from Thebes in 525 BC to destroy the oracle at the Temple of Amun, at the Oasis of Siwa, after priests there refused to recognise his claim to the Egyptian throne.
But after walking for seven days in the desert the army was caught and buried in a cataclysmic sandstorm.
Their bones, as well as numerous weapons and pieces of jewellery, were discovered in the desert by accident when a researcher stumbled upon a half-buried pot.
Italian archaeologists Angelo and Alfredo Castiglioni, already famous for their discovery of an ancient "city of gold" in Egypt 20 years ago, led the dig and claim to have solved one of ancient history's greatest mysteries.
Many have tried and failed to find the lost army, including Count Laszlo Almasy, the subject of the book and movie The English Patient.
Now the Reason that I bring this article to your attention, is precisely because Herodotus' 'assumed legend' turned out to be real. Not all fables are fables, and likewise, not all truths are really true.
First excavated by Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, in 1870, the city of Troy was discovered after a lifelong quest which led Dr. Schliemann to the plain of Troad, on the north-west coast of Turkey. Until its discovery, it was considered a fictional city from the 'Illiad', by Homer. The discovery is one of several 'mythological' places that have been unearthed over the last two hundred years.
With regard to the writings of Herodotus, Robinson,T.H. 1932 A History of Israel. Vol I. Oxford. Clarendon Press. and Herrman p.424) suggests that the Bible Story of King Josiah's death at Megiddo (2 Kings 23:29-30) is a corruption of an event about which Herodotus wrote concerning the battle at Magdolos (Migdol) near Kadytis (Kadesh) on the Orontes. See:The Death of King Josiah of Judah
Perhaps in time we will find out which of the two places is the correct one. Well the Bible is the correct one of course! Why must that be so? Because it is the Word of God. The Bible is infallible - even though the book of Kings and Chronicles are stated only to be collations of existing historical chronological records.
Both those who totally believe in a literal textual Biblical infallibility and those skeptics who have a need to constantly search to disprove Biblical infallibility, share the same problem. Neither have any real faith in God himself. (From :Biblical infallibility)
Another contentious issue regarding the Bible is the reference in the book of Exodus to Moses crossing the Red Sea. Naturally many people are skeptical of such an event. As all the previously recorded miracles in Egypt can be explained away as 'naturally occurring phenomenon' and the Red Sea Crossing cannot, it must of course be a 'fable'.
Yet when Josephus the Jewish Historian concludes his discourse on the Exodus (Antiquities Book 2 Chapter 16:5), he states that he is only reciting the records as they stand, and that in spite of the miraculous element in the crossing of the Red Sea, he acknowledges (as does also Whiston - Footnote 33) that this phenomenon is not entirely unknown.(See: Exodus Unabridged)
Although some do claim that physical evidence exists to verify the story of the Parting of the Red Sea and subsequent drowning of the Egyptian army, the most frequent objection to the story self justifies on the basis of a lack of evidence. This of course was the same justification for rejection of the Fabled Story of Troy. The same justification for rejection of Herodotus' legend of the lost army.
It was the same arguement given for rejecting Hormuzd Rassam's 'Balawat' claims. He originally lost the evidence of his discovery in a river accident. (He was ultimately justified. See: Footnotes and British Museum. (1970) Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities: Assyrian Palace Reliefs p. 16) (The original link here was to (...britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/article_index/b/balawat_ancient_imgur-enlil.aspx - which has disappeared.)
Academic precedence requires that when there is an absence of evidence to support an assertion, that assertion must be rejected.
Butlack of evidence alone does not negate an historical assertion. For an historical assertion to be negated, there must be evidence to prove that the assertion is wrong. Prior to the discovery of Herodotus' lost army; Schliemann's City of Troy; Rassam's Balawat, and a host of other recent discoveries, the available ancient documentary evidence was not considered 'evidence' at all, and the basis for rejection of the stories, was a 'lack of evidence'.
What it truly was, was 'prejudice'.
When historical documents are entered into evidence, a lack of Academic acceptance and a lack of supporting documentary evidence, does not and cannot negate the validity of the documentary Evidence that is provided. This is a principle of evidentiary law. See:Rules of Evidence Series. This does not mean that the evidence speaks of something real or true. It still requires some form of corroboration.
The interesting thing about corroboration, is that one does not necessarily need to corroborate the issue at hand. It can be sufficient to demonstrate the reliability of the witness who left the documentary evidence. When time and again the Witness who left the documentary evidence, is proven to have been reliable and trustworthy in his reporting of a variety of other matters, it can be taken that the evidence 'at hand' is also trustworthy.
Academics have for a long time been Shifting Previous Historical Perspectives, trying to establish themselves in one way or another. For a variety of reasons they would rather not give credit where it is due; not admit that which they know to be true; not wanting to delve too deeply into something that might show them up for what they are.
The worst of the bunch however, are those who prefer to rewrite history to suit their own political ideologies. In that endeavour, it makes no 'nevermind' whether it is Islamic rewriting of history, or the secularist anti-God, anti-Judeo/Christian who does the writing. The end result is the same: We are deceived about our own history, and our faith is undermined.
Fortunately for us, someone comes along now and then and proves these liars wrong. But instead of always waiting for the 'hard evidence' to turn up and PROVE them wrong, maybe we should be asking them to provide the hard evidence that proves them right.
Perhaps it's time to Shift our historical perspectives back into the realm of tradition, instead of anti-God, anti-Religion, anti-Judeo/Christian, pro-political correctness academic cultural marxism.
The illuminated ones may disdain the history we have received, but time and again it has turned out that by following their misguided claptrap, we have reaped the 'law of unintended consequences'.
Perhaps we should do as was written, and not allow ourselves to be carried about by every wind of (Politico-Academic) doctrine.
It's time to Shift our Historical Perspectives before we ourselves become the future's ancient 'fable'.
Book Review:"The Buried Book: The Loss and Rediscovery of the Great Epic of Gilgamesh" By David Damrosch Courtesy of the Wahshington Post 4 March 2007 By Michael Dirda Word search David Damrosch on the link page.
The third great figure in Damrosch's story of the rediscovery of Gilgamesh is Hormuzd Rassam, a Chaldean Christian who served as Layard's second-in-command, attended Oxford and later headed up archaeological expeditions for the British Museum. According to Andrew George, a leading modern figure in Babylonian studies, Rassam is "an unsung hero of Assyriology." Why unsung? Damrosch -- no doubt rightly, if somewhat tendentiously -- points to racial, i.e. "Orientalist," prejudice as the reason for his neglect. Rassam wasn't really, you know, quite the right sort, even though he grew to be more English than the English, serving in the diplomatic corps and living long enough to see his daughter become a star of the Gilbert and Sullivan operettas. But Damrosch makes clear that the man's wide-ranging archaeological discoveries were consistently undervalued or callously ascribed to others. At the end of his life, Rassam was even compelled to bring a suit against the Egyptologist E.A. Wallis Budge, who falsely accused him of selling artifacts.
Since 2004 he has been writing academic articles, social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both here at KingsCalendar, and formerly as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News (Maine USA) where from 2009 to 2015 he was Stand-in Editor. He currently has a column at iPatriot.com and teaches English to Business English and Flight Attendant College Students in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province People's Republic of China.)
BenDedek originally created the site to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran.' Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah. Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
(The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam)
Definition: King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix 5. to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]