Egyptian Coin Discovery: Archaeology reveals Joseph in Egypt: Some of the coins are from the time when Joseph lived in Egypt, and bear his name and portrait. "Research team head Dr. Sa'id Muhammad Thabet said ... many charms from various eras before and after the period of Joseph, including one that bore his effigy as the minister of the treasury in the Egyptian pharaoh's court. "The researcher identified coins from many different periods, including coins that bore special markings identifying them as being from the era of Joseph. Among these, there was one coin that had an inscription on it, and an image of a cow symbolizing Pharaoh's dream about the seven fat cows and seven lean cows, and the seven green stalks of grain and seven dry stalks of grain
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Beliefs, Opinions and Facts.
Recently in the (...jpost.com/) Jerusalem Post[/URL] there appeared an article concerning some ancient Egyptian coins that support the Bible claim that the Israeli Patriarch Joseph held a position of power in the Egyptian court.
As I have spent years researching Biblical Chronology and have discovered synchronous symmetry in the chronology for period of the Divided Kingdom of Israel indicating a completely artificial chronological record, and I have used that record to chart all Biblical dates, (Bible, Josephus, Damascus Document) this recent news of coins bearing Joseph's image is therefore of intense interest to me.
Looking for more information about this discovery I turned to the IMRA (Independent Media Review Analysis) Website, and I was certainly intrigued by what I read there. Now I must state here that I am only going to discuss the sections of that article that specifically relate to Joseph, but you would do well to read the whole article. Relevant quotes are:
Some of the coins are from the time when Joseph lived in Egypt, and bear his name and portrait.
"Research team head Dr. Sa'id Muhammad Thabet said ... many charms from various eras before and after the period of Joseph, including one that bore his effigy as the minister of the treasury in the Egyptian pharaoh's court.
"The researcher identified coins from many different periods, including coins that bore special markings identifying them as being from the era of Joseph. Among these, there was one coin that had an inscription on it, and an image of a cow symbolizing Pharaoh's dream about the seven fat cows and seven lean cows, and the seven green stalks of grain and seven dry stalks of grain
Joseph's name appears twice on this coin, written in hieroglyphs: once the original name, Joseph, and once his Egyptian name, Saba Sabani, which was given to him by Pharaoh when he became treasurer.
Whilst all this is certainly interesting, anyone with a knowledge of Ancient History, will immediately recognise that this report is somewhat hyperbolic for several reasons.
The first reason is that the phrase 'when Joseph lived in Egypt' does not provide a specific date for the event, and as many are aware, "conventional chronology" contains sufficient disagreement as to placement of pharaonic reigns, that one must talk in terms of centuries when talking about the period of time when Joseph lived in Egypt. What many might not be aware of is the fact that there is sufficient challenge to 'conventional chronology' as to make even 'a century' placement rather pointless.
The second reason that the language is somewhat hyperbolic is that the phrase 'bear his name and portrait', which is connected to the statement that Joseph's name 'written in hieroglyphs' appears twice, once as his original name and once as his Egyptian Name.'
This statement does not elaborate on how it is known that the 'original' name belongs to Joseph, or why 'this' Joseph should be the Patriarch of Israel. Nor does it explain how it is known that the Egyptian Name is that which belonged to the Patriarch.
The final reason for suspecting Hyperbole, is the reference to 'an image of a cow' which is then linked to the Pharaoh's dream of 7 cows and 7 stalks of grain. Whilst the article makes the discovery speak volumes, at the end of the day, what there is, is just some coins with an image of a cow, an Egyptian name, and another name in a different language that indicates that there was a person of importance named 'Joseph.'
Apart from Biblical inference, why are these coins, symbols and names important? There is not only vast disagreement about exactly when Joseph was in Egypt, but whether the Biblical stories are even true. So the question begs asking: 'what is the time frame referred to when referring to 'Joseph's era'?'
My own calculations indicate that Joseph appeared before Pharaoh in 1656 BCE' that The Egyptian Famine (connected with the cows and stalks of grain), commenced in 1650 BCE; that The Israelite Sojourn in Egypt commenced in 1648 BCE, and that Joseph died in 1582 BCE, and that around thirty (30) years later, the Hyksos Kings were ejected from Egypt (1554 BCE).
I did send off an email inquiry seeking clarification of some matters, but to date no reply has been received.
The Story of the Israelite Patriarch can, in addition to the Bible, be found in the writings of Josephus and Seder Olam Rabbah. All three seem to dovetail when viewed through the chronology used in 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran.'
The Seder Olam Rabbah however, does contain chronological information not found in the other records, for example, that the slavery in Egypt lasted for the duration of Miriam's life - 86 years.
Another example is that concerning Levi's life. Through the lens of the 'King's Calendar' Chronology, it is possible to make additional calculations pertinent to events for which currently we have no details. Those references for example, pinpoint the year that the Hyksos were expelled from Egypt - a date which synchronises with the chronologies of Josephus.
It is calculated that from the Death of Levi to the Exodus, 116 years transpire, and that Levi died just two or three years before Amosis founded the 18th Dynasty after the Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt.
The King Calendar calculations for the Patriarchs which agrees with The Bible, Seder Olam and Josephus) indicates:
Abraham: 1915 BCE. to 1754 BCE
Isaac 1822 BCE to 1657 BCE
Jacob 1767 BCE to 1633 BCE
Joseph 1683 BCE to 1582 BCE
The Sojourn commenced 1648 BCE
The Exodus Occurred 1449 BCE
That these three sources agree (within the King's Calendar artificial calendar), demonstrates (to this writer at least), the accuracy of the ancient records, and that they were not meant to be applied within the framework of a standard solar year calendar.
So concerning this recent discovery of coins bearing symbols of cows and stalks of grain and Egyptian and other names, while it does suggest that the Biblical Event is true, it is at the moment nothing but a suggestion. Without a concrete chronological placement to confirm Biblical chronology (of many available), this discovery remains just another fascinating mystery.
In so far as it does however seem to indicate that there was a 'foreigner' of great importance in the Pharaonic court in Ancient Egypt who may have been involved in agrarian reform, I would like to now provide you with some excerpts from 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran' (US $14.99).
From: Chapter Fourteen : Abraham to Moses.
Joseph's Position in the Egyptian court
Joseph's reward for interpreting Pharaoh's dream, and preventing economic tragedy in Egypt, was to be raised to a position of great responsibility. It is recorded that the only person of greater stature in Egypt was Pharaoh himself. He was given Pharaoh's signet ring, fine linen garments and a gold chain to wear around his neck.
His responsibility was to oversee the procurement of provisions to store against the coming famine, and the people were required to bow to him. By his authority the people were able to come and go in the land. (Genesis 31:39-46). His title as recorded in Genesis 42:6, is that of Governor.
His position as described however, fits that of Grandvizier. Although this particular position did not reach its' highest zenith until Rekhmire in the 15th Century (James 1984, p.54). Rekhmire's portfolios and powers included, security, justice, taxation, tribute, land surveys, forced labour, and all legal matters. The only person higher than the Grand Vizier was indeed the Pharaoh. (Refer to: Newby.P.H. 1980)
The Biblical narrative accords three specific powers to Joseph. That of Finance, Travel, and Pharaonic Authority. In it's description of his activity, it informs us that:
He collected finances from grain sales to store for use during the famine.
He collected livestock in exchange for grain sales.
He purchased the land from the starving inhabitants of Egypt, in return for grain.
He provided the people with seed to sow, but at a price. The people were required to give 20% of their harvests to Pharaoh, and thus entered Egypt, regular annual taxation.
The Biblical Narrative actually provides a great deal of information on Joseph, such as that one must either consider it to be an utter fabrication, or an historical truth.
The Pharaoh Who Knew Not Joseph:
Exodus 1:1, indicates that there arose in Egypt a Pharaoh who did not know Joseph.
This pharaoh was Amosis who expelled the Hyksos 'shepherd kings' of Egypt, somewhere around the middle of the 16th century. Sir Flinders Petrie (1906 See: Marston, 1935. p.282) commences his reign in 1573 BCE. However, as will be seen in the 'King's Calendar' reconstruction of Josephus' chronological data, 1554 BCE. is the year that he indicates to be that in which the Hyksos were expelled.
Joseph's financial reforms occurred c.1643 BCE. and he himself died in 1582 BCE. Irrespective of when precisely the Hyksos were expelled from Egypt, the statement that Pharaoh did not know Joseph (who only died Thirty years earlier), could reflect an assumption that he 'ought' to have known him!
Rev. Tompkins suggested a century ago that Joseph lived during the reign of Apepi (Apophis), and in quoting Petrie, (Appendix B - page 177), demonstrates that the story of Joseph is an accurate accounting of regular events during the 16th Century. / Tompkins (c.1900). p.56.
If it is true that Pharaoh ought to have known (of) Joseph, then the Biblical expression can be seen as a negative reflection upon the Pharaoh's failure to provide due recognition of Joseph's status and his historical contribution during the famine 70 - 100 years earlier, and by extension, a reflection upon his ill treatment of Joseph's kin.
Joseph's personal contribution to government at that time, was the complete reorganisation of Pharaonic finances; a situation from which Amosis personally benefited.
The Famine of the mid-17th Century BCE.
While the Biblical story of Joseph's promotion via his interpretation of the Pharaoh's dream might for some be relegated to the realms of mythology, this story takes place at a time in history during which a cataclysm did occur that caused protracted famine throughout this region in the world, and it is connected with the fabled Atlantis.
One of the many proposed identifications of Atlantis, is the Greek Island of Thera.(Pellegrino.C. (1991) Unearthing Atlantis : an Archaeological Odyssey. New York. Random House.)
In the mid-17th Century B.C. this island exploded with a force many times that of Krackatoa, sending a cloud of black ash some twenty miles into the atmosphere. The ash from that explosion travelled south east and reached Egypt. Whilst the event is currently but not definitively placed c.1628 BCE. (Pellegrino.1991 p.22) it may well be that it occurred some twenty years earlier.
The seven (artificial) years of plenty of which Joseph prophesied lasted between approximately 1655 BCE and 1650 BCE. If the Theran catastrophe occurred somewhere around 1650 BCE, its devastating effects most certainly affected agriculture in those places where the ash fell (As far as Egypt Pellegrino 1991 p.232/233), and may well be the basis behind the story of Pharaoh's dream.
Joseph was born in, 1683 BCE., appeared before Pharaoh and was raised to Governor status around 1655 BCE. The Famine commenced in 1649 BCE. and the sojourn commenced the following year. Joseph died in 1582 BCE some thirty years before the Hyksos were expelled from Egypt.
James P. Thorpe.I.J., Kokkinos.N., Morkot.R., Frankish.J. (1991) Centuries of Darkness. Rutgers Uni Press. New Jersey.
James. T.G.H. (1984) Scenes from Life in Imperial Egypt. 1984.University of Chicago
Marston. C. (1935) The Bible is true: The lessons of the 1925-34 excavations in Bible lands summarized and explained. Australia. Angus and Robertson.
Newby.P.H. (1980) Warrior Pharaohs. The Rise and Fall of the Egyptian Empire. London. Faber and Faber.
Pellegrino.C. (1991) Unearthing Atlantis : an Archaeological Odyssey. New York. Random House
Tompkins H. (c.1900) The Life and Times of Joseph in the Light of Egyptian Lore. London. The Religious Tract Society
Since 2004 he has been writing academic articles, social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both here at KingsCalendar, and formerly as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News (Maine USA) where from 2009 to 2015 he was Stand-in Editor. He currently has a column at iPatriot.com and teaches English to Business English and Flight Attendant College Students in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province People's Republic of China.)
BenDedek originally created the site to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran.' Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah. Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
(The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam)
Definition: King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix 5. to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]