Sun Yatsen Mausoleum - Zhongshan Mountain Park Nanjing: Chinese Political History, Culture, Customs: Qing Dynasty.Designed by Lu Yanzhi, a famous architect, the construction of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum began in March 1926 and ended in the spring of 1929. It is 700 meters from the Memorial Archway to the coffin chamber with 10 terraces and 392 steps between them, and the falling head reaches 70 meters. The main buildings of the mausoleum include the memorial archway, the mausoleum gate, the tablet pavilion, the sacrificial hall and the coffin chamber. On June 1, 1929, a grand burial ceremony was held at the mausoleum which is shaped like an alarm bell, symbolizing Dr. Sun Yat-sen's unyileding spirit in fighting to arouse people and salvage the nation. - In the center of this map with the blue roof is Sun Yatsen's Mausoleum. To the right is the Linggu Pagoda and to the left of the Sun Yatsen's Mausoleum is the Ming Tomb area. As you can see there are many other places to see. There is also Purple Mountain at the very top of the picture, access to which can be gained by a cable way.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum, Zhongshan Mountain National Park Nanjing.
This article is just one of a series of photographic articles currently being presented at King's Calendar relating to two trips I undertook; to Nanjing on April 3rd and to Ningbo April 12th 2008. Links to all articles may be found at the end of this article.
Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum Zhongshan Park Nanjing
I currently teach English in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province, the Capital of Which is Nanjing. Friday 4th April 2008 was the Chinese 'Qing Ming' Festival, which is now a public holiday. Having only one class to attend on Thursday 3rd, I headed off to Nanjing to meet up with my former student and current friend Zhang Mingxing. On April 4th we spent the day at Zhongshan Mountain National Park.
There are many things to see there and I personally would recommend that you buy the individual tickets to the various areas, and spread your journey over 2 days. If you buy the all inclusive ticket as we did, you have to see it all in one day.
We visited Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum first, then caught the tourist 'train' (bus) to Linggu Temple and then doubled back to see the Ming Tomb. It is all very exhausting.
There is not a lot you can write about a visit to Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum. It is after all, just a place where a dead guy lives, and where living people die trying to climb all those bloody steps. But it is a phenomenal place and the views are to die for! (Sorry! I can't help myself!)
Zhongshan Mountain National Park
Words in Italics are transcribed from official notices. Original errors have been included.
In the center of this map with the blue roof is Sun Yatsen's Mausoleum. To the right is the Linggu Pagoda and to the left of the Sun Yatsen's Mausoleum is the Ming Tomb area. As you can see there are many other places to see. There is also Purple Mountain at the very top of the picture, access to which can be gained by a cable way. We had no time to go there.
This Filial Scriptures Tripod is located just inside the entrance to the park proper, and is directly across from the first archway leading to Sun Yatsen's tomb. One can buy tickets to the different places separately or buy one individual ticket (140 rmb), but you only have the day in which to complete your tour. In Emeishan, the ticket was valid for 2 days.
Filial Scriptures Tripod.
I never thought to get a close up photograph of the sign. I can make out that it is a filial scriptures tripod presented in 1932. Lady Huang had something to do with it as well as Kuomintang leaders and someone at the Zhongshan university.
The first archway toward Dr. Sun Yatsen's Tomb.
A nice place, a long avenue, but so full of damn tourists - especially foreigners!
Looking back to the Filial Scriptures Tripod
Some idea of how far you have to walk before you start climbing steps
Designed by Lu Yanzhi, a famous architect, the construction of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum began in March 1926 and ended in the spring of 1929. It is 700 meters from the Memorial Archway to the coffin chamber with 10 terraces and 392 steps between them, and the falling head reaches 70 meters. The main buildings of the mausoleum include the memorial archway, the mausoleum gate, the tablet pavilion, the sacrificial hall and the coffin chamber. On June 1, 1929, a grand burial ceremony was held at the mausoleum which is shaped like an alarm bell, symbolizing Dr. Sun Yat-sen's unyileding spirit in fighting to arouse people and salvage the nation.
The Mausoleum Gate Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum
The Tablet Pavilion Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum
The Stele Pavilion, 12 meters long at each bottom side and 17 meters high, is a granit construction roofed with blue glazed tiles. The stele erected inside is 8.1 meters high and 4 meters wide, with a three-line inscription on it by Tan Yankai, one of thefounders of Kuomintang. The characters on the stele were written in Yan Zhenqing style, which features vigor and strength.
These boots were made for walking, and that just what they did!
Foreigners normally get stared at in China, but on this occasion it seemed like many people were surprised that a foreigner would visit the place. Of course, it was the foreigner who was surprised at the populatity of the place considering that China is now an 'allegedly' communist country.
Get the Picture?
Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum was built in commemoration of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the great forerunner of the modern Chinese democratic revolution. Its construction started in 1926 and was completed in 1929. Dr. Sun's remains was shipped to Nanjing and buried here on June 1st, 1929.
The mausoleum, situated at the southern slope of Zhongshan Mountain, covers an area of 133 hectares. Its layout in the shape of a bell designed by famous Chinese architect Lu Yanzhi, with the open country at the front and screen-like peaks at the back, looks very imposing. From the entrance of the Mausoleum to the granit hall there are 392 ascending steps with 10 landings in between, covering a length of 700 meters and a height of 70 meters. The memorial archway, toom passage, entrance, pavilion, sacrificial hall and coffin chamber are all located on the axis. Here we select a vast amount of valuable pictures and files, which recorded the whole process of construction started from spring 1926 and its history of development.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum is famous as the mausoleum of a great personage as well as for its unique characters of construction.
Oh but the View was worth it!
Zhang Mingxing with the foreigner.
Foreigners must get used to Chinese asking to have their picture taken with them. This occasion was no different. I had two boys hanging off my shoulders while their friend took a photo, and while he did that, I took a photo of him. When they were finished, it occurred to me that while I take photos of Mingxing and he takes photos of me, we never have any photos of the two of us together. So the boys were glad to oblige.
Mingxing has had five and a half years of constant exposure to English in normal English speed conversation. Right now, in addition to his English studies at university in SiChuan, he is also studying German. He will be a great man one day!
Taking a breather outside the actual cenotaph.
Inside that building you see, is a statue of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, and when we got to the doors we saw people walking in, then going around the back of the statue, and coming out the other side. Well we saw no purpose in doing that and instead looked for somewhere to sit down and rest.
A copy of a photograph on display - I didn't even take my own photograph!
From there we followed a path up into a special area covered in picture and signs, and at that point, discovered that behind the statue of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, was the actual burial chamber in which his coffin is on display. Realising our original error by not entering the Sacrificial hall, we headed back there, only to discover that the place was now absolutely full of people and the queues were far too long. So we never got to look at the Sarcophagus! (Ghoulish eh?)
You can walk into this room and look at the Sarcophagus
The Original Coffin
On June 1, 1929, the Grand National funeral was held at Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum in Nanjing.
Dr. Sun's coffin was being moved from the Pagoda of Biyun Temple on May 22.
Official paper for moving Dr. Sun's Coffin
On Nove 9, 1928, Lin Sen, Zheng Hong-nian and Wu Tie-chen worked as specialists to arrange the moving of Dr. Sun's coffin. On May 22, Dr. Sun's coffin was been moved from the Pagoda of Biyun Temple, and moved from Biyun Temple at 1:00 a.m. May 26, 1929, set out from Beijing Qian men railway station at 5:00 p.m. arrived Nanjing Pukou railway station at 10:00 a.m. May 28, then steamer Wei Sheng taking the coffin across the river to Nanjing Xia Guan port. Dr. Sun's coffin arrived KMT Central Government at 3:15 p.m. The public memorial service held three days.
Back to the break we were taking.
Between leaving the cenotaph area and discovering the area where all the historical photographs and information were displayed, we took a break. Naturally many people wandered past just to get a close up look at this animal. When you have been here long enough you learn to predict by body language, what people are going to do, so it came as no surprise when some boys asked me if they could have their photograph taken with me. I had already realised that they were going to do it, so I got in first and took a photo of them.
You can see it in their eyes!
After we had returned to the cenotaph and discovered it was useless trying to get in, we headed back down the steps and made our way back to the first archway opposite the Filian Scriptures Tripod.
Wonderful Views from the Top at Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum
Back at the entrance and just to the left of the archway (but on the other side of the road) there is a little bus stop where the courtesy 'train'/bus picks you up and takes you to the Linggu Temple area. Leaving the archway and turning right takes you to the bus that takes you to the Ming Tomb.
The following day we went to the Confucius Temple and the Presidential Palace. The following week, my school took the foreign teachers to Ningbo, where we learned more about Chiang Kai-shek, about whom I had already learned a little at the Presidential Palace.
Designed by Lu Yanzhi, a famous architect, the construction of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum began in March 1926 and ended in the spring of 1929. It is 700 meters from the Memorial Archway to the coffin chamber with 10 terraces and 392 steps between them, and the falling head reaches 70 meters. The main buildings of the mausoleum include the memorial archway, the mausoleum gate, the tablet pavilion, the sacrificial hall and the coffin chamber. On June 1, 1929, a grand burial ceremony was held at the mausoleum which is shaped like an alarm bell, symbolizing Dr. Sun Yat-sen's unyileding spirit in fighting to arouse people and salvage the nation. - In the center of this map with the blue roof is Sun Yatsen's Mausoleum. To the right is the Linggu Pagoda and to the left of the Sun Yatsen's Mausoleum is the Ming Tomb area. As you can see there are many other places to see. There is also Purple Mountain at the very top of the picture, access to which can be gained by a cable way
The Beamless Hall is the only survivor from the Ming Dynasty in Linggu Temple area. It was once called "Hall of Boundless Life" because it was built to worship the AMitabha Buddha, whose neame means "Boundless life". The brick-vault structure was built without a single piece of wood or beam, hence resulting in its current name. The KMT government had a cemetery built here for the KIAs in 1931, it was changed into a hall for public sacrifice.
Ancestral Halls were places where clansmen offered sacrifices to their ancestors and also great men of both ancient and more recent times. The building of memorial temples and ancestral halls was very popular during the Qing Dynasty. Various types of such temples and ancestral halls, such as the 'Zhaozhong' (loyal official), 'Xianliang' (wise man or sage) and Gongchen (meritorious personage) were built, during this period, in many parts of China including Beijing
During the Nationalist Government periods, Chiang Kai-shek, Lin Sen, Li Zongren and other leaders took a short rest in this building before ceremonies began. The Communists-Nationalists Negotiations were held here in 1946. In this building Li Zongren, the Acting President, received the Shanghai Peace Delegates who had returned from BeiPing on 27 February 1949.
Whilst it was obviously once a huge place, (judging by the 'model' on display), it wasn't quite as big as you might imagine a 20 thousand room place to be. The examination rooms were just meter wide boxes which contained a bed/desk to which the examinees were confined for the several days necessary to complete their exams. These rooms are set up as displays and each has a mannequin in it that depicts something of the trials and tribulations of the examinees, and includes one in which a 'snake' was attacking one person, and another in which the examinee is being burned by fire. So much for the good old days
Qinhuai River, known as Huaishui River or Longcangpu in ancient times, rises from two places: Baohuashan Mountain in Jurong County and Donglushan Mountain in Lishui County. The two streams meet at the foot of Fangshan Mountain, Jiangning County, then winds its way of 110 km to Yangzi River. The river that flows through Nanjing measures 10 li (5 kn) and this part is called Inner Qinhuai River. The River has a long history. As early as in Neolithic Age, it nurtured the early settlers along the banks. Now the Inner Qinhuai has become the center of culture and economy of Nanjing
The Taiping Army occupied Yong'an (now Mengshan County) in September and conferred the titles of the Eastern King. Westarn King. Soutnarn King. Northarn King, and Wing King upon Yang Xiuquan. Xiao Chaogui, Feng Yunshan, Wei Changhui and Shi Dakai, respectively. According to records of historical documents, the concubines of the Heavenly King were addressed Niangniang (Your Ladyship). Therefore their rooms were Called 'niangniang Palace". The room where the Heavenly King's second wife (Empress Lai) was called "You zheng Yue Palace".
Wengzhong Path, 250 meters long, constitutes the second section of the Sacred Way. This section is flanked by a pair of balusters, two pairs of generals and two pairs of civil officials. The balusters, with a cylinder crown at the top as well as cloud and dragon designs over the column, have changed the convention of topping the balusters along the sacred way with lotus-flower design since the Tang and Song Dynasties. It is of innovative significance in art. The statues of the generals and officials stand there with great dignity, guarding the tomb with their loyalty
Civil and Military Gate is the first gate to the graveyard of the Ming Tomb. In 1998, the Administration of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum had its original appearance restored according to the burial system of the Ming Tomb of the Ming Dynasty. At the foot of the gate there is a "Special Notice" tablet inscribed in Japanese, German, Italian, English, French and Russian. It was jointly erected for the preservation of the Ming Tomb in the first year under the Xuantong Reign of the Qing Dynasty (AD 1909) by the taotai (head) of Liangjiang Westernization Buteau and the magistrate of Jiangning Prefecture.
Realising that this was a 'security' situation, I decided that it was probably unwise to stand around with my hands in my pockets, and deliberately removed them, keeping my hands in plain sight at all times. While quite conscious of the fact that the uniform police in every direction were discreetly keeping an eye on me, it nevertheless was a surprise when the Chinese Secret Serviceman confronted me, although from the man's first step in a 15 metre walk, I knew instinctively who he would be. He pulled out his credentials, and speaking in reasonably good English, informed me that he was a Policeman; advised me that he had been watching me for 20 minutes; and wanted to know what I was doing there
Summer Camp consisted of two different 12 day sessions, teaching each class once every two days. On the day of the 4th class during the first camp, I was advised that the parents had complained about my teaching. 'They think that what you teach is useless (like having the students stand and actually speak English), and that you should teach 'new words' (that they will never use if they don't actually speak), and that you should teach them about Australia".
The day I was due to Leave, Zhan Yan turned up at my house saying that his summer camp had been cancelled and none of his family were in town. So guess who came with me? There is no commentary apart from the fact that it costs 50 RMB for the entrance ticket
Really, we only went there to eat pizza at Carole's Restaurant, but noting a few changes in the area, decided to take a few new shots. From the vantage point on the upstairs balcony of the restaurant, I started off the process by taking photos of people in the street who kept pointing out the foreigner
In the temple, there are many places of cultural and historical interest. Tianwang (Heavenly Kings) Hall, Guanyin Hall, Wuyou Hall and the Arhat Hall are solemn in ancient style, Kuangyi Pavilion is charm and elegant. On Erya Terrace you can overlook the river, while in Tingtao Pavilion, you can enjoy the music of the current. If you want to see how the three rivers meet go to Jingyun Pavilion; to enjoy flowers, butterflies and singing birds, go to the Plum Garden. What is mostly worth mentioning is that it is the temple and the hill on which it stands that form the hesd of the Giant Sleeping Buddha.
Dopo 45 minuti di strade tutte uguali, siamo finiti nel bel mezzo della 'zona commerciale', dove il traffico si è fatto insostenibile e venivamo sorpassati da arzille nonnine con ceste piene di spesa. A piedi, ovviamente. Qui ho cambiato autobus, sempre seguendo le indicazioni del foglietto. Lungo la strada, sono stata messa in allarme da dei cartelli: Longmen caves: 11km. Longmen Caves: 13km. Longmen Caves: 15km. Avvicinandosi alla meta, i chilometri dovrebbero diminuire, non aumentare ¡ quando mi sono resa conto che stavo viaggiando nella direzione sbagliata avevo gia trascorso più di un'ora e mezza in autobus e mi trovavo ad oltre 15 chilometri dalle grotte. Ho fermato un taxi.
My 11.45 am flight left at 1pm. Knowing that this would happen, I had bought my international ticket from Beijing, and chanced travelling to Beijing the day before. That also meant that I would need accommodation on the 14th. After checking the Internet, I came across the Beijing Aulympic - Olympic - Hotel, located very close to the airport. The fees were very very very low and that suited me fine. I did not expect however, that the hotel would be as nice as it was
With the official greetings over, we were presented with a variety of performances from local artists and international guests, including an American man and his family. This family presented a narrative from a Gospel about the birth of Jesus, and then went on to present some musical renditions of Christmas Carols. Another foreigner, who performed a Chinese fan dance, was Helen, a Ukrainian with an American Accent. She is also an English teacher in Dong He District Baotou. We chatted for a little while at the end of the night. The other performances included an Arabian - Chinese dance performed by a group of girls balancing rice bowls while they gyrated around the place. They were all young and beautiful and adept in their craft
My 'less than trusting' Chinese friends (currently scattered far and wide throughout China), are not so excited. They tell me that not only are private schools well known for their abuse of and cheating both foreign and National teachers, but one should not trust a Chinese boss to keep his word. While in fact no one has actually informed me that I will be paid overtime, the provision is in my contract and I don't see how it can be 'forgotten'. I doubt that the franchisee could ever have become such an illustrious business woman (She has businesses in China and in Canada) had she not been an ethical manager
Queensland, the Sunshine State of Australia, Home of the Banana Benders, the Kingaroy Peanut (Sir Joh Bjelke-Peterson) and many many famous people including Sean Connery's former wife Dianne Cilento. Brisbane City Hall faces King George Square, and on the other side of the road is the Wesley Methodist church, and behind that a tall building that 30 years ago was the State Government Insurance Office (where I once worked). These two shots are significant, because in one of the Mission Impossible Movies, you see this church in the background of one scene, minus the tall building. Really scary scene. I thought the building must have been demolished. Nope! Still there!
Spanish Lighthouse at Corregidor Island had a signpost letting us know how far from home we were - The Centerpiece at the War Memorial for American Soldiers in Manilla - Corregidor Island Battery looking toward Batan - Military tanks at the Philippine Military Academy
Definition: King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix 5. to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]
About the KingsCalendar Publisher
R.P.BenDedek is the owner and Editor of KingsCalendar.com which was originally set up to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran'.
Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
Every time you see or hear an historian or archaeologist quote chronological material from the Bible, they are 'pulling your chain'. They manipulate your trust in the Bible and direct it toward 'themselves'. When we read that some expert says this or that, we are naturally inclined to accept that they know what they are talking about, but in reference to the two cases sited above, the 'fact' of the matter is, that neither religious nor secular academics have ever 'proved' their theories to be correct, and the 'fact' that these points in history are constantly being challenged, examined and argued over, demonstrates clearly enough, that the 'chronological' aspect at the very least, has not yet been satisfied beyond everyone's doubt
Opinions, Assumptions and Presumptions are not facts in relation to evidence. Whilst the 'King's Calendar' is a 'theory', it is in fact 'a scientific theory' and can therefore be subjected to scientific testing, under which, should it fail, it would be proven beyond doubt to be false. Too often we just accept what 'The Professionals' tell us, without ever forcing them to make a clear distinction between 'proof' and 'opinion'
Newsletter No.1 Religious Compartmentalisation - Psychological Dysfunction By R.P. BenDedek
Many folk wonder why it is that their children have turned from their religious traditions to new or exotic forms of religious observance, and it is not at all unreasonable to suggest that this is because our materialistic, logical, and science driven society, has robbed us of the inner emotional stability which comes through 'trusting in a higher power'. What facinates me, is that many 'fundamentalists', while publicly preaching the Bible to be the Word of God, will, when confronted by the anomolous situation between the chronological facts of history and the chronological record of the Bible, maintain that biblical chronology is not important, saying "we don't feel that the historical information is important"