Cyrus the Great: Persia:Cyrus [Zol-qarnain in the Quran], lived 580-529 BC, was the first Achaemenian Emperor - grandson of Cyrus I (7th century BC) - came to power by overthrowing his maternal grandfather, the king of the Medes. Cyrus' palace was in Susa in Elam. In 560 B.C., Cyrus the Great became the king of Persia. He introduced a new political policy of reconciliation throughout the Empire and was the first ruler to introduce human rights policies. In 539 Cyrus launched very efficient attacks on Babylon... mentioned twenty-two times in the Old Testament and was favorably disposed toward the Jews (Ezra 1:1-2) Herodotus records the story of how Cyrus miraculously escaped death at birth and was raised by a shepherd. Two reliable sources of information on Cyrus are the Bible and Herodotus written in 5th Cent. BC.
As part of my daily activities I check to see what brings readers to the King's Calendar website and I have noticed quite a number of guest come looking for something to read on Cyrus the Great.
In fact, until I placed this file here, I have only mentioned King Cyrus in passing. Therefore as a service to my readers, I have collected some excerpts from various websites that deal with King Cyrus, so that you can save some time in your search for information on him.
The first thing I will do is give you a Precis type overview of the information that is presented here about King Cyrus, and then follow this with some information contained in the King's Calendar Website in reference to him.
King Cyrus Reference File Divisions:
Precis of Information on King Cyrus the Great of Persia
King's Calendar References to King Cyrus of Persia.
Website Resources and Excerpts on Cyrus the Great
Footnotes: Assyrian, Babylon, Israelite Kings.
Precis of Information on King Cyrus the Great of Persia
Cyrus (580-529 BC) was the first Achaemenian Emperor
Two reliable sources of information on Cyrus are the Bible and Herodotus written in 5th Cent. BC.
Cyrus was the grandson of Cyrus I (7th century BC)
Cyrus came to power by overthrowing his maternal grandfather, the king of the Medes.
Cyrus' palace was in Susa in Elam
In 560 B.C., Cyrus the Great became the king of Persia
He founded Persia by uniting the two original Iranian Tribes - the Medes and the Persians.
He introduced a new political policy of reconciliation throughout the Empire
Cyrus was the first to introduce human rights policies.
In 539 Cyrus launches very efficient attacks on Babylon
Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, is mentioned twenty-two times in the Old Testament
Cyrus was disposed quite favorably toward the Jews. Ezra 1:1-2
His motive was probably to create a buffer state between Persia and Egypt
In Christian Tradition he is seen as a foretype of Jesus the Christ.
Nearly one hundred and sixty years before king Cyrus was ever born his coming was prophesied.
Isaiah 44:28 (NKJV): Who says of Cyrus, 'He is My shepherd'
Herodotus records the story of how Cyrus miraculously escaped death at birth and was raised by a shepherd
Zol-qarnain in the Quran is Cyrus the Great
King's Calendar References to King Cyrus of Persia.
In that article the focus was upon the fact that the Seder Olam reduces the Persian Period of history from it's 200+ years to just a few decades. Conventional chronology states that the Persians ruled Israel from 539 BC to 332 BC (207 years). Rabbinic chronology says the Persians ruled for 52 years. The Discrepancy = 155 years
According to Seder Olam Rabbah there were 3828 years from Creation to the 70AD destruction of the temple, and 1656 years from Creation to the flood. Therefore, from the Flood to 70AD there are 2172 years.
From within the King's Calendar research, it could be seen that there exists evidence that the artificial calendar was used until at least 104 BCE. and therefore it could be summised that from the period 104 BCE to 70 AD, chronological records were provided in true solar years, of which there were 173.
To subtract these 173 years from the period "The Flood to 70 AD", results in a figure of 1999 years. If these years be artificial which they most certainly are, those years convert into 1845 true solar years, a discrepancy of 154 years.
What is the significance of these years? If the Seder Olam Rabbah was a serious attempt to chronologise the history of Israel, synchronising it with known historical events, then the data used during this period, was 154 years excessive.
It was in the context of this type of discussion that Cyrus was used in the King's Calendar, since his reign had significance to Jeremiah's prophecy relating to a 70 year Babylonian Exile, and as Seder Olam Rabbah records a 480 year time lapse between Solomon's Temple and Zerrubabel's Temple.
But since you came here looking for data on Cyrus......
Cyrus (580-529 BC) was the first Achaemenian Emperor. He founded Persia by uniting the two original Iranian Tribes - the Medes and the Persians. Although he was known to be a great conqueror, who at one point controlled one of the greatest Empires ever seen, he is best remembered for his unprecedented tolerance and magnanimous attitude towards those he defeated.
As Prof. Richard Frye of Harvard said (in The Heritage of Persia, p10-151):
"In the victories of the Persians... what was different was the new policy of reconciliation and together with this was the prime aim of Cyrus to establish a pax Achaemenica..... If one were to assess the achievements of the Achaemenid Persians, surely the concept of One World, .... the fusion of peoples and cultures in one 'Oecumen' was one of their important legacies"
Between 546 and 539 Cyrus sorted out the consolation - and administration of his empire. He is unlikely to have gone to the East like Herodotus says. If Cyrus is really just appointing governors etc then there will be no stories of what happened so Herodotus makes up a story to fill the gap.
In 539 Cyrus launches very efficient attacks on Babylon and takes over in a few months. The Babylonians had already conquer Assyrian, Syria and Phoenicia so now the Persians were in control of yet more land and also these ports meant that they had control of the sea warfare.
Babylon of all the civilisations of Cyrus's time was the most advanced.
Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, is mentioned twenty-two times in the Old Testament in evidence of his prominence in the biblical scheme of things in those declining days of Judah's history. When Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian regime in 539 B.C., he was disposed quite favorably toward the Jews. Ezra 1:1-2
Nearly one hundred and sixty years before king Cyrus was ever born, God declared to the prophet Isaiah that he would raise up this man, his shepherd, to rebuild his city, even though at the time of Isaiah, Jerusalem was prospering and would not be destroyed for another 100 years by Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon.
The Lord's prophecy begins at Isaiah 44:28 (NKJV): Who says of Cyrus, 'He is My shepherd, And he shall perform all My pleasure, Saying to Jerusalem, "You shall be built," And to the temple, "Your foundation shall be laid." '
The Greek historian Herodotus, in Volume 1 of his histories, records the wonderful story of how Cyrus miraculously escaped death at the time of his birth and how he was brought up by a shepherd who wasn't even his father. Thus, fulfilling God's spoken word to the prophet Isaiah.
Cyrus II , (Known as Cyrus the Great. 600-529 BC King of Persia (550-529) and founder of the Persian Empire who conquered Lydia and Babylon.
The grandson of Cyrus I (fl. late 7th century BC), he came to power by overthrowing his maternal grandfather, the king of the Medes.
His legacy is the founding not only of an empire but of a culture and civilization that continued to expand after his death and lasted for two centuries.
Cyrus was much admired by the Jews, whom he favored, placing them in power in Palestine. His motive was probably to create a buffer state between Persia and Egypt, but the result was a rehabilitation of Israel. Cyrus was admired as a liberator rather than a conqueror, because he respected the customs and religions of each part of his vast empire.
Jerome Bible Commentary [biblia.com] The Jerome Bible Commentary, book by book. Jesus and His Church in the Book of Ezra or Esdras
The Book of Ezra, or Esdras, recounts the return of the Jews to Jerusalem from the Babylonian exile, the rebuilding of the Altar and of the Temple, after King Cyrus' decree ... and the Ezra's reform.
The book of Ezra, in conjunction with Nehemiah, records the fulfillment of God's promise to restore his people to their land after seventy years of Babylonian captivity.
This is the Second Exodus of the People of God, the first one was from Egypt to Israel.
Edict of king Cyrus of Persia (1):
It was God who stirred up the spirit of Cyrus II (1:1) to permit any willing Israelite to return to his land. And it was God who later prompted Darius I (6:14, 22) and Artaxerxes I (7:11-13ff) to decree similarly (9:9).
Much information, concerning the historical figure renowned, among Western people, for virtue and humanity emanates from two reliable sources, the Bible and Herodotus written in 5th Cent. BC. It is proclaimed that Cyrus was the first legislative who issued a number of principles in terms of human rights.
Cyrus is a personality mentioned in the Bible, i.e the Old Testament (the Book of Daniel, the Book of Ezra and some other books where Cyrus is referred to in very explicit terms: Daniel dreamt that in the palace of Susa in Elam, a two-horned ram triumphed over all animals, with the exception of a one-horned goat that finally defeated the ram. Daniel lost consciousness after this dream and an angel appeared to him, saying that the ram he had seen was the king of the Medes and the Persians, while the one-horned goat was the king of the Greeks) (Book of Daniel, chapter 8, verses 20-21).
Zol-gharnein was a merciful king who was kind to inferiors which is true of Cyrus the Great to the extent that even his enemies revered him. He was the one who issued the Charter of Liberty and Human Rights in Babel.
According to the historian Herodotus (i.46), Cyrus was the son of Cambyses I. He came to the Persian throne in 559 B.C. Nine years later he conquered the Medes, thus unifying the kingdoms of the Medes and the Persians.
Cyrus is mentioned some 23 times in the literature of the Old Testament.
What many people do not realize in reading Isaiah 44:28ff is that this heathen ruler was named by the prophet long before the monarch was even born. Isaiah prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1). His ministry thus occurred in the latter portion of the 8th century B.C. (ca. 740-701 B.C.). This was some one hundred fifty years before Cyrus came to the throne!
In other words, though he was a pagan in sentiment and practice, yet, as an unconscious tool in the hands of the Lord, he would contribute mightily to the Jewish cause, and so, indirectly, to the coming of God's greater Anointed, Jesus of Nazareth.
The fulfillment of these plain and specific predictions is set forth in 2 Chronicles 36:22,23 and Ezra 1:1-4,7,8; 3:7; 4:3.
The charter of Cyrus the Great, a baked-clay Aryan language (Old Persian) cuneiform cylinder, was discovered in 1878 in excavation of the site of Babylon. In it, Cyrus the Great described his human treatment of the inhabitants of Babylonia after its conquest by the Iranians.
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R.P.BenDedek is the owner and Editor of KingsCalendar.com which was originally set up to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran'.
Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
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R.P. BenDedek also writes social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both at KingsCalendar, and as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News in Maine USA.
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Topic 1. What is the Seder Olam Rabbah Topic 2. Seder Olam Chronological Chart : Adam to Abraham: Topic 3. Seder Olam & The 430 year Covenant with Abraham: Topic 4. Joseph in Seder Olam Rabbah: Topic 5. Seder Olam & The Pharaoh who knew not Joseph: Topic 6. Seder Olam & Israel Wandering in the Wilderness: Topic 7. 850 year/17 Jubilee Period, Joshua to Ezekiel's Vision in 14th year Exile: Topic 8. Comparative Chronologies:Seder Olam Rabbah, Josephus, Book of Judges: Topic 9. Ehud & 80 years of Peace - Judges 3:30 and Erroneous Biblical Chronology: Topic 10. Seder Olam:How Long was the Ark of the Covenant at Kiriath Jearim?: Topic 11. Seder Olam Rabbah's Confusing Chronology : Samuel, Saul and David: Topic 12: Seder Olam Chronological Discrepancies regarding Samuel, Saul & David. Topic 13: Apportioning the 63 years left for Samuel & Saul Topic 14: Seder Olam Rabbah : How many days in a Biblical year? Topic 15: Chronologies of Samuel,Saul, David & Solomon