The Bible: Ancient History: Archaeology: History of Israel: Bible Dates: Bible Contradictions: Bible Calendars.In the study of the Ancient Near East, or what might be called today, the Middle East, many many documents are relied upon, and all have one problem in common. Their Timelines! Another and more correct term for Time line, is 'Chronology.' The Ancient World did not record time in the way we do now, and additionally, no one seemed bright enough back then, to link all their chronological records in such a way, as to present a continuous time line. Except that is, for the Jews of Ancient Israel. The problem with the Ancient History of Israel concerns what is called 'Biblical Contradictions.' Biblical contradictions can refer to either 'internally non synchronistic data' or data that is inconsistent with data recorded in other parts of the world.
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What are our perceptions about Ancient History and Bible Contradictions?
Ancient History is the Study of the Ancient World, the past ages or civilisations of the world, and our knowledge of those ages and civilisations comes to us by the records that they left. In the study of the Ancient Near East, or what might be called today, the Middle East, many many documents are relied upon, and all have one problem in common. Their Timelines! Another and more correct term for Time line, is 'Chronology.'
The Ancient World did not record time in the way we do now, and additionally, no one seemed bright enough back then, to link all their chronological records in such a way, as to present a continuous time line. Except that is, for the Jews of Ancient Israel.
What makes their records unique, is that they went to great lengths to 'synchronise' their chronological data, which is to say, that they linked one piece of datum to another, and so their history reflects the only real attempt to provide a consecutive summary of chronological events, by which later generations, could trace their history.
The problem with the Ancient History of Israel concerns what is called 'Biblical Contradictions.' Biblical contradictions can refer to either 'internally non synchronistic data' or data that is inconsistent with data recorded in other parts of the world, or rather, the way in which we view the data recorded in other parts of the world. Biblical contradictions in the study of Ancient History, is a touchy subject for two reasons.
Firstly: Many religious simply refuse to believe that the Biblical record of Ancient History contains contradictions
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Secondly: Anti-Religious bias prefers to accept other Ancient History records over the Jewish History in the Bible, when the Bible contradicts our understanding of that other Ancient History
Dismissing the religious belief that there are no Biblical Contradictions in the Ancient History of Israel, and concentrating on the Secular or Academic approach to Biblical History and its' contradictions, we can note that there are some really interesting approaches taken when dealing with Biblical History. See: Parts 1 - 4 The Laws of Evidence & Archaeology
Before I proceed to discuss that issue, it is important at this point to explain why Biblical or Jewish History as recorded in the Bible is even considered by Secular Academics. The most simple explanation is that
The Bible records far more detail, both as a narrative and a chronology, than any other nation in the Ancient World
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The synchronistic nature of the Ancient History of Israel, even with its' Biblical Contradictions, provides a lot more links and clues as to the relationship between various nations of the Ancient World.
Now one of the things that Academics, quite illogically do, is to quote the Bible, when they find in it some support for some 'opinion' that they have on a matter.
One Archaeological forum's moderator once wrote a piece about King Josiah, and quoted from the Bible to demonstrate that his particular chronology of events was correct. So I checked out some of his other chronological placements for earlier Kings, and found that his placement for King Solomon, could not be justified, if you traced the Biblical Chronological data, back in history from his determination for the reign of King Josiah. So I posted a comment in the forum.
A few hours later I got an email informing me that they don't accept 'Bible Bashers' on their site, and that none of my posts would be permitted. Where I come from, a 'Bible Basher' is one who preaches the Bible, which I did not do, so I was left to wonder if to him, the term 'Bible Basher' was someone who 'negated' the significance of the Bible, which I had not done.
I had simply asked him why it was that it was felt necessary to quote from the Bible to justify his chronology for Josiah, when, if you continue using the Biblical chronology, his date for Solomon would be wrong. Herein lies a very definite problem. It's called, Academic arrogance, deceit and dishonesty.
The real basis for the problem, is that no one understands Biblical Chronology, and so basically they say it is fictitious, unreliable or otherwise useless; but they still keep using it to support their theories.
I remember reading an article once, about the Biblical depiction of an Historical Exodus occurring in the 15th century BCE, and the writer was at great pains to point out that the whole story was an invention, but who then went on to provide all sorts of evidence to show that the Exodus occurred during the 13th Century. Well! Excuse Me! How can a non existent event be moved from one century to another?
In the article Biblical Infallibility, Divine Inspiration & Academic Deceit and Manipulation, I made the following observations:
If one does not believe that the Bible is G-d inspired, but that it contains the history of a nation and its people, written and compiled by qualified authors, commentators and redactors, then we ought to be able to conclude that the chronological information contained within it ought to be as trustworthy as any other ancient record, and its failure to synchronise with known history, results from either Our failure to correctly apply that information, or because our current knowledge of History is erroneous.
If generally speaking, we accept that the academics are reasonably 'spot on' in their reconstruction of history, then we must conclude, that their failure to synchronise the Biblical chronological information with that history, results from their failure to apply the Biblical data correctly.
With this in mind, let me state quite clearly, that it is not only hypocritical, but deceitful for Academics to 'quote and otherwise use' the Bible, to support any of their findings.
Ask yourself; "Was the information that now appears as 'the Bible,' meant to be factually representative?" If your answer is 'No!,' then the Bible was not meant to be factually representative, and so Academics demonstrate a highly unscientific approach to history, when they use Scripture to support various archaeological and Historical propositions.
On the other hand, if your answer is 'Yes!," and the Bible was meant to be factually representative, then we must conclude that it either is still correct, or that it is not still correct.
If it is still in fact correct, then Academics who propose schemes that differ from Biblical Chronological projections, are just plain wrong and we can conclude that current historical perception and research is not reliable since it clearly conflicts with Biblical Chronology.
If the material was meant to be correct and still is, then Chronological conflict arises between the Bible and history, because the academics have failed to apply the Biblical Chronological information correctly, and we should be wary of listening to them.
If however, the information is no longer correct (for whatever reason), then modern Academics demonstrate a highly unscientific approach to history, when they quote Scripture to support various archaeological and Historical propositions. When they do this, they are quite clearly 'manipulating' the public. No matter how you look at it, Modern Academics are playing a 'self interested and self promoting' game, when they try to beguile readers by quoting from the Bible to support their findings.
Either way, Academics who use the Scriptures to 'prove' or back up their particular theories, are suspect to say the least, for logic dictates that you cannot use an 'unknown or not understood' system of mathematics, to prove anything.
The Bottom line is that you can't trust those academics who quote from the Bible.
Now of course, the King's Calendar generally agrees with the findings of Secular Archaeological Academics and Ancient History as calculated by the Historians, but rejects the notion that the chronological data in the Ancient History of Israel amounts to Biblical Contradictions.
You see, the King's Calendar maintains that Academics to date, have failed to understand how the material was recorded. [If you are new to the King's Calendar, then at the end of this article you will find the major portion of another article entitled What is the King's Calendar?
Now although it was not written in relation to Ancient History and Biblical Contradictions, the following excerpt from an Article At TCS Daily (TechCentralStation), gives you some idea of the mentality of 21st Century Academic approaches to research.
You graduate as a PhD at the same university where you started as a freshman, and from the beginning of her higher academic studies the young PhD student is very closely connected to her institution's professor, becoming highly influenced in her academic orientation and methodology by the senior academics. If you are not compatible with the orientation and methodology dominant at your Alma Mater your academic career will be seriously hampered. The comparison between Europe and America also shows in that European PhD students mainly focus on churning out articles and seldom develop new ideas for research. Old School By Waldemar Ingdahl[/URL] (link no longer current...tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=020906E)
21st Century Academics are not interested in Real Research. They merely want to rehash previous research. They are not interested in finding real solutions to real problems. They merely want to discuss what has already been written. Therefore, no real progress is made in solving the problem of Biblical Chronology.
Religious Bias coupled with Academic Laziness is responsible for our inability to understand the so called Biblical Contradictions in the Ancient History Israel.
Now I want to bring to your attention, five examples of some of those things which are called Biblical Contradictions, that in fact are not contradictions at all, according to the King's Calendar methodology in it's (mathematically and computer generated) reconstruction of the synchronistic chronology of the Ancient History of Israel. See Also:
The Septuagint says 440 years and the Masoretic text (from which the KJV Bible is derived) says 480 years. The King's Calendar demonstrates that the Septuagint uses Solar Years whilst the Masorete uses artificial years.
This is Not a problem or contradiction!
When Do Jehoram of Israel and Jehoram of Judah Ascend?
Jehoram of Judah ascends the throne in the 5th year of Jehoram of Israel 2 Kings 8:16
Jehoram of Israel ascends the throne in the 2nd year of Jehoram of Judah 2 Kings 1:17
Again two different measurements are used; one solar and one artificial, with Jehoram of Judah co-reigning with his father Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 1:17) and reigning on his own (2 Kings 8:16)
Again: Not a problem!
2 Different dates for the Ascension of Ahaziah of Judah
Ahaziah, son of Jehoram of Judah and grandson of Jehoshaphat, commenced to reign in both the 11th and 12th years of Jehoram of Israel (2 Kings 8:25 & 2 Kings 9:29)
Also not a problem - both are correct However, only when presented from the perspective of the redactors, who made a mistake in the reign of Ahaziah of Israel.
Both Points 2 & 3 are demonstrated in Chapter Six of the King's Calendar
2 Kings 15:30 referring to the reign of Jotham.
This is an interesting situation. Everyone says this scripture is incorrect, and yet the King's Calendar shows it to be correct. That is because, at this point in history, the redactors, whilst they got all the chronological details correct, mixed up the names of Jotham (Jehoahaz), Ahaz (Ahaziah) and Hezekiah.
Modern Academics have great trouble with the Biblical Contradictions at this point in History, because Hezekiah in his 4th and 6th year is supposed to have witnessed Hoshea of Israel being besieged by the King of Assyria (724 - 722 BCE) and yet have a 14th year in 701 BCE.
The King's Calendar demonstrated that it was just the names which got confused; eg JHHZ, HZH, and HZKH (in the Hebrew).
Many academics doubt the Biblical story of his imprisonment and release, but the Aggadah says that it occurred in his 22nd year.
Interestingly enough, as this photographic excerpt from Appendix 5 demonstrates, Manasseh's 22nd artificial and solar years coincide with the beginning of Ashurbanipal's reign and at that same time as Ashurbanipal released Pharaoh Necho under similar circumstances.
The description of Manasseh's barbaric humiliation, is corroborated by Rawlinson, who points out that this practice of bringing prisoners of importance into the presence of a conquering monarch by means of a thong attached to a hook or ring passed through the upper lip, under lip or both, is not biblical fiction, but an Assyrian custom from which not even royalty was exempt.
(Rawlinson, G. 1885 Egypt and Babylon: From Scripture and Profane Sources. Hodder and Stoughton)
See also: Manesseh in the Aggadah (Haggadah):
Refer to the Encyclopaedia Judaica or Chaim.R. (1968 ) the Walls of Jerusalem: An Excursion into Jewish History Alfred.A.Knopf New York p.68
Academics who use the Bible to demonstrate the accuracy of their opinions, are deceiving the gullible. They accept neither the Narrative nor the Chronology of Israel's Ancient History, and constantly see Biblical Contradictions, simply because they have lost the vigor to instigate true academic research. Religious Bigotry has made them lazy.
As for the apparent Biblical Contradictions in the Ancient History of Israel - Yes! There are some. Generally speaking however, most of the contradictions arise because we have failed to understand how the data was recorded, and we just cannot chronologically fit the Ancient History of Israel into our current perception of time reckoning.
I hope this article has given you some insight, and that you will return again and again to read more of 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran.'
The best way to answer this question is to show you.
The King's Calendar is a calendar, or more correctly, a series of calendars that actually depict chronological synchronisms. All but Appendix 5 have Line Numbers so as to provide a ready reckoning for the purposes of calculations.
The following is a sample of the Bare Calendar as it applies to the Divided Kingdom Period
This following calendar is an example of how the Biblical Data is applied to that calendar.
1. King's Calendar Chronological Research
The King's Calendar is a computer generated mathematical synchronism primarily of all the Biblical Chronological Data for the Divided Kingdom of Israel, but extending its' application to the chronologies of Josephus, Seder Olam Rabbah and the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
It assigns a value of 336 days per Biblical Year derived from the Hypothesis that
The Proto-Essenes or Hasidim, firstly in Babylonia and later in Palestine, altered the true solar year history of Israel.
Counting each year as comprised of 364 days
They divided these 364 days into 7 day periods
And divided these into 4 week months
To create an artificial year of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days.
Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE)
Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel into the artificial form
Altering the legitimate history of Israel
And extending it, by creating 13 artificial years where 12 solar years once stood
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align.
Refer to Appendix Five to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period. Appendix Five is an Actual Calendar of events, listing every true and artificial year, and records all the Synchronous Biblical Chronological Data. Appendix 5
2. The formula for constructing the artificial calendar
'X' times 364 = 'Y' days
'Y' days divided by 336 = 'Z' artificial years.
'X' = any given number of 'real/solar' years
364 = perceived days in the sectarian calendar
'Y' = number of days calculated
336 = number of days in an artificial year
'Z' = artificial years = 1.083'X' and represents the original number of the converted years plus 8%.
To reverse the process by hand: 'Z' years times 336 equals 'Y' divided by 364 = the Original Number of 'X' years converted.
3.The Principle of Linear Causality
The King's Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work.
Because it is a mathematical system, the King's Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It's like a 'domino effect.' Chronological references cannot be 'forced' to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or 'compressed' as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.
If any King's Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King's Calendar successfully defends its' position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King's Calendar is 'proven' wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.
Because of this, the King's Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel's history is unique, in that its' methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its' chronological predictions are able to be 'proved' or 'disproved.'
4. Solar Year Calculations
The Biblical Data as it stands exceeds available history for the parameters it sets. The KingsCalendar, which assigns each Biblical Year a value of 336 days, reduces the overall Biblical Data by roughly 8%. When working in Solar Years, many problems arise. For example, Counting from 586 BCE to 701 BCE in literal Solar Years makes:
a). 701 BCE Hezekiah's 24th year not his 14th year.
b) 702 BCE Hezekiah's 23rd year
c) 703 BCE Hezekiah's 22nd year
d) 713 BCE Hezekiah's 12th year
e) 722 BCE (Fall of Samaria) Hezekiah's 3rd year not his 6th year.
f) 724 BCE (Siege of Samaria) Hezekiah's 1st year not his 4th year.
g) 729 BCE Ahaz' 12th year
h) 730 BCE Ahaz' 11th year
i) 730 BCE Hoshea of Samaria 1st year
j) 734-732 BCE Syro-Ephraimic War – Ahaz & Pekah.
k) 740 BCE Ahaz' 1st year.
However When working in Solar years counting down from the accepted date for the commencement of the reigns of Jehu (Israel) and Athaliah [Judah], that is, from 841 BCE to 701 BCE, the following is the result.
a) 701 BCE = Ahaz 13 th year
b) 702 BCE Hoshea commences to rule in Samaria
c) 703 BCE Pekah's 28th year.
d) 713 BCE Ahaz' 1st year (18th of Pekah)
e) 722 BCE Jotham's 8th Year & Pekah's 9th Year
f) 724 BCE Jotham's 6th Year & Pekah's 7th Year
g) 729 BCE Jotham's 1st year & 2nd Year of Pekah
h) 730 BCE Uzziah's 52nd year
i) 730 BCE Pekah's 1st year
j) 734-732 BCE Syro-Ephraimitic War must have been fought by Uzziah.
k) 740 BCE Uzziah's 42nd Year & Menehem's 4th year.
Result: Solar Year Calculations are insufficient to understand Biblical and Extra Biblical Chronology.
5. King's Calendar Application to other Chronological Data
To determine that the hypothesis of the King's Calendar was valid, Chronological references from Josephus and the Damascus document of the Dead Sea Scrolls were given the same mathematical values, and chronological (calendar) charts were created to measure the references provided.
The results demonstrated that almost all Biblical and Extra Biblical chronological data relating to the pre-Babylonian Exile period, are recorded in an artificial form.
To guarantee the accuracy of the Historical results and application of the King's Calendar Reconstruction of Israelite History, extensive research was undertaken of historical and archaeological evidence, which threatened at certain points to undo the King's Calendar mathematical predictions.
In order to justify its' Predictions, the King's Calendar has also had to rely upon the Legal Rules of Evidence and Testimony to demonstrate that many of the assumptions and opinions of historians, archaeologists and other academics are fundamentally flawed.
6. Josephus' chronological references in relation to King David and the Exodus
The King's Calendar presents calendars that include the chronological references of Josephus, so that these references can be 'visually measured' against the backdrop of Israelite history. In some cases during the study of Seder Olam Rabbah, reference was made to Josephus' statements, and various Line Numbers were provided.
Of special interest in studying Josephus' material, is that he appears to use original and unique data that is no longer available to us. The following, is the conclusion to Chapter 20 of the King's Calendar, on Josephus.
From this study of Josephus' data, it also seems reasonable to believe that he had access to at least Six (6) original, artificially correct, chronological pieces of datum, that are no longer available to us. These are:
That Jerusalem was founded 995 years prior to David's reign.
That 'an' Exodus (Hyksos expulsion from Egypt) occurred 589 years prior to David's reign.
That 525 years elapsed from the Exile to and including Cyrus' kingship in Babylon.
That 995 years elapsed from the commencement of David's reign to and including that of Aristobulus in 104 BCE.
That 423 years elapsed between Cyrus' accession as King of the Medes, and the death of Judas Maccabeus.
That 908.5 years elapsed between the Israelite entrance into Canaan under Joshua, and the Babylonian Exile.
7. Regarding 1 King's 6:1 and The King's Calendar Reconstruction of Historical Events
The 480 years of 1 King's 6:1 are Artificial years
They were originally recorded as Solar years extending from the Exodus to Solomon's 1st year – From 1449 BCE to 970 BCE
They were transcribed into an artificial Calendar that ought to have shown 480 years from Entry into Canaan to Solomon's 4th year, but the reference first parameter was left as at Exodus whilst the final parameter was changed to Solomon's 4th year.
1 King's 6:1 actually records 480 Artificial years from the Entrance into Canaan to Solomon's 4th year.
Therefore The Time frame for the Period of the Judges plus King Saul = 480 less 4 years for Solomon, and 40 years for David = 436 years.
8. Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt
One result of the King's Calendar investigation into Josephus, was that it was seen that Josephus' reference to the 'Exodus' was actually a reference to the Hyksos Exodus from Egypt, and that as measured by the KingsCalendar, the year 1554 BCE is identified.[Chapter 20 "Josephus" Example (viii) From the Departure from Egypt to Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE 1062.5 years elapse - Antiquities Book 10:8:5 Re: The burning of the temple]
Grimal (1992, p. 392) places the Hyksos Expulsion at 1552BCE - Refer also to Dollinger.A. (2000) An Introduction to the History and Culture of Pharaonic Egypt. Herodotus.
The King's Calendar date of 1554 BCE does however fall within various dates provided by various Academics for the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt. Such dates range from 1583 BCE (Marston 1935, p 83) until after the commencement of the 18th Dynasty under Ahmose (c. 1570 - 1550 BCE)
Since 2004 he has been writing academic articles, social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both here at KingsCalendar, and formerly as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News (Maine USA) where from 2009 to 2015 he was Stand-in Editor. He currently has a column at iPatriot.com and teaches English to Business English and Flight Attendant College Students in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province People's Republic of China.)
BenDedek originally created the site to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran.' Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah. Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
(The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam)
Definition: King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix 5. to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]