The King's Calendar' is a computer generated mathematical synchronous chronological presentation of the history of Ancient Israel, as principally recorded in the Biblical books of Kings and Chronicles, and sets forth Apologetics for and the results of R.P.BenDedek's discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Books of the Bible, Josephus,the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah - Israel Timeline charts: Citations and References for students from over 100 Academic publications:
Seder Olam Rabbah (No.7):
Reviewing Chronological Totals from Adam to Solomon.
concluded by pointing out that Failing a Paroxysm of Religious Denial, one must concede that the narrative and chronological data provided in, 'The Book of Judges' (for the Period of the Judges), The Book of Samuel Chapter 6:1 & 7:2 (Ark of the Covenant) and the narrative detail in 1 Kings 6:1 Masorete, (480 years) and Septuagint (440 years), are in error.
It was pointed out that the Seder Olam Rabbah's presentation of a 13 year combined period for Samuel and Saul, no matter how justified it might seem (1 Samuel 6:1 & 1 Samuel 7:2) is erroneous.
It demonstrated that Samuel and Saul have a combined total of 63 years
And it pointed out that "The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran", which is a mathematically computer generated synchronism of Biblical Chronological data, provides the best demonstration of the correct chronology for this time period.
In this article We will briefly look at the chronology presented by the Seder Olam for Saul, David and Solomon, before doing a review of the totals that the Seder Olam has provided to this point, (Adam to Solomon) noting in particular, demonstrable errors.
The variety of chronological statements made by Seder Olam Rabbah about Samuel, ultimately stem from its' need to reduce the excessive totals in the Book of Judges for the Period of the Judges. Lead astray by errors and lack of data in the Scriptures, Seder Olam Rabbah concluded that Samuel judged Israel for a total of 10 or 11 years.
According to Josephus, Samuel reigned 12 years independently, and shared 18 further years with Saul.
The King's Calendar demonstrates that
Samuel's 1st year artificially commences June 1068 BCE [Line 522]
It is the 374th year of Entrance into Canaan
Samuel's 32nd and last year commenced in January 1039 BCE [Line 491]
This year is the 405th year of Entrance into Canaan
During his last year, Samuel made Saul Prince of Israel and can be measured as Year 1 of a 32 artificial year reign for Saul
Samuel appears to have been around 70 artificial or 66 Solar Years of age when he died.
According to Seder Olam Rabbah, Saul reigned 1 or 2 years with Samuel. Josephus records that he reigned 18 years together with Samuel, and 2 years independently.The King's Calendar records:
Saul was made Prince during Samuel's last year 1039 BCE [Line 491]
That year commenced 2 artificial years, Line 491 and Line 490
It marked the 405th and 406th artificial years of Entrance into Canaan
Saul's true first Artificial year counted as his 2nd commenced in December of 1039 BCE Line 490
On a Tishri measuring system, Saul probably did not succeed to the throne until Mid 1038 BCE commencing his first of 28 solar years in September of 1038 BCE
November 1038 BCE Line 489 marks the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd artificial year (depending on how you want to measure them) and is the 407th year of Entrance into Canaan
Saul Died between September 1011 BCE and August 1010 BCE in the 460th Year of Entrance into Canaan.
He reigned 28 Solar years, and his reign was counted as 32 artificial years
Saul was about 63 artificial or 58 solar years of age when he died.
Chronological Chart Samuel/Saul
The added details apply to the chronological references of Josephus ?See footnotes
David [Line 459] commenced in the 437th year of entry into Canaan
He commenced in 1010 BCE
Which was the 981st year [995 ?13.5 overlapping years] from Aristobolus (104 BCE included)
It was the 40th year measuring 515 years from David's Last year to the Exodus
It was the 1st of 525 years [less 13.5 overlapping year] to elapse between David and Cyrus
His last year [Line 420] was 974 BCE
David was around 73 artificial or 67 solar years of age
It was the 476 th year of Entrance into Canaan
The 14th [Less 13.5 overlapping year] of 525 years Between David's 1st year and Cyrus
It was the 942nd [less overlapping years] of 995 years measured from Aristobolus [104 BCE] to David's 1st year.
It was the 1st of 515 years from the 1st year of the Exodus
1 Kings 6:1 says 480 years from Exodus to Solomon's 4th year
Solomon commenced to reign in the middle of 973 BCE [Line 419]
It was the 477th year of Entrance into Canaan.
Solomon's 4th artificial year commenced April 970 BCE [Line 416]
970 BCE was the 480th year of Entrance into Canaan
In 970 BCE he commenced building the Temple
His 11th year commenced at the End of 964 BCE
In this year, the Temple was completed.
6. Chronological Review Adam to Solomon
Apart from some minor details, the Seder Olam Chronological details follow those of the Biblical Texts. However, it should also be noted that it does provide details not found in the Biblical texts.
The ages provided Seth and Mehalalel are a total of 6 years excessive on the Biblical ages. Within the King's Calendar chronologies, those 6 years effectively disappear, because the Seder Olam Rabbah puts Abraham's age at 70 when the 430 year covenant was made, instead of 75 years.
We have discussed how the Seder Olam Rabbah determined the chronologies for the Judges Period, and note that of the 450 years provided in the Book of Judges for the Period of the Judges, Seder Olam Rabbah deducts 91 years and adds 38 years (Joshua & Samuel).
Whilst there was an 850 year error in relation to the 17 jubilee periods to the time of Ezekiel, this figure has no impact on the overall chronology of the Seder Olam Rabbah.
Seder Olam Rabbah Extra Information
What is interesting in the Seder Olam Rabbah is the extra information provided in Relation to Joseph and his Brother Levi, particularly that in relation to Levi's age at the Beginning of the sojourn, and at his death. Likewise the reference to the 86 year period of slavery under the Pharaoh who knew not Joseph, is fascinating from the perspective of the King's Calendar Reconstruction, in light of the chronological data provided by Josephus.
The Usual Error
The major and currently unnoticed error in the Seder Olam Rabbah, is that error to which all who study Biblical Chronology fall prey, failing to understand 1 Kings 6:1.[Topic 12 Footnote]
7. Chapter Conclusion
Whilst Seder Olam Rabbah relies on both Biblical and Extra Biblical information in the compilation of chronologies, it is [inherently] quite clear that much of the chronological commentary is the result of trying to understand an 'imprecise' record of events.
From this perspective then, it is not difficult to understand how chronological errors occur. Nevertheless, there is very little that is surprising within the chronologies presented to this point in the History of Ancient Israel.
The following is the conclusion to King's Calendar Chapter 20 on Josephus:
From this study of Josephus' data, it also seems reasonable to believe that he had access to at least Six (6) original, artificially correct, chronological pieces of datum, that are no longer available to us. These are:
That Jerusalem was founded 995 years prior to David's reign.
That 'an' Exodus (Hyksos expulsion from Egypt) occurred 589 years prior to David's reign.
That 525 years elapsed from the Exile to and including Cyrus' kingship in Babylon.
That 995 years elapsed from the commencement of David's reign to and including that of Aristobulus in 104 BCE.
That 423 years elapsed between Cyrus' accession as King of the Medes, and the death of Judas Maccabeus.
That 908.5 years elapsed between the Israelite entrance into Canaan under Joshua, and the Babylonian Exile.
Topic 12 Footnote
1 King's 6:1 - The King's Calendar.
The 480 years of 1 King's 6:1 are Artificial years
They were originally recorded as Solar years extending from the Exodus to Solomon's 1st year ?From 1449 BCE to 970 BCE
They were transcribed into an artificial Calendar that ought to have shown 480 years from Entry into Canaan to Solomon's 4th year, but the reference first parameter was left as at Exodus whilst the final parameter was changed to Solomon's 4th year.
1 King's 6:1 actually records 480 Artificial years from the Entrance into Canaan to Solomon's 4th year.
Therefore The Time frame for the Period of the Judges plus King Saul = 480 less 4 years for Solomon, and 40 years for David = 436 years.
The King's Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work. To see how effective this method is, SEE:Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE
Because it is a mathematical system, the King's Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It's like a 'domino effect'. Chronological references cannot be 'forced' to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or 'compressed' as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.
If any King's Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King's Calendar successfully defends its' position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King's Calendar is 'proven' wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.
Because of this, the King's Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel's history is unique, in that its' methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its' chronological predictions are able to be 'proved' or 'disproved'.
Copyright 2013 is held by the nominated authors on this article page.
The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam
About the KingsCalendar Publisher
R.P.BenDedek is the owner and Editor of KingsCalendar.com which was originally set up to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran'.
Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
R.P. BenDedek also writes social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both at KingsCalendar, and as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News in Maine USA.
He currently (2013) teaches Conversational English in SuZhou City Jiangsu Province in China.
Dates for Nabopolassar & Nebuchadrezzar Kings of Babylon - and - Josiah and Jehoiakim Kings of Judah as per (Wiseman.D.J. (1961) Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 BC) in the British Museum. Trustees of the British Museum. London) Using Babylonian Chronicles B.M. 22047 (p.65) and BM 21946 (p.67) But with a one (1) year adjustment for the Reigns of Nabopolassar and Nebuchadrezzar.
607 bce - Sep - Nabopolassar engaged at Bit-Hanunia / Urartu - 18th year - B.M. 22047 Line 1-4
607 bce - Dec - Josiah's 31st year commences
607 bce - Dec/Jan - Nabopolassar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 1-4
606 bce - May/Jun - Campaigning to the north - 19th year - B.M. 22047 Lines 5-7
606 bce - Jun/Jul - Nabopolassar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 8
606 bce - Jul/Aug - Necho heads North for Carchemish
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Nebuchadrezzar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 12
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Josiah of Judah slain
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Jehoahaz becomes king of Judah
606 bce - Sep/Oct - Nabopolassar Heads to Kimuhu - B.M. 22047 Line 12
606 bce - Nov - Nabopolassar captures Kimuhu - B.M. 22047 Line 14
606 bce - Nov - Jehoahaz deposed by Pharaoh Necho - taken to Riblah
606 bce - Nov - Jehoiakim commences - 1st Artificial year commences.
Topic 1. What is the Seder Olam Rabbah Topic 2. Seder Olam Chronological Chart : Adam to Abraham: Topic 3. Seder Olam & The 430 year Covenant with Abraham: Topic 4. Joseph in Seder Olam Rabbah: Topic 5. Seder Olam & The Pharaoh who knew not Joseph: Topic 6. Seder Olam & Israel Wandering in the Wilderness: Topic 7. 850 year/17 Jubilee Period, Joshua to Ezekiel's Vision in 14th year Exile: Topic 8. Comparative Chronologies:Seder Olam Rabbah, Josephus, Book of Judges: Topic 9. Ehud & 80 years of Peace - Judges 3:30 and Erroneous Biblical Chronology: Topic 10. Seder Olam:How Long was the Ark of the Covenant at Kiriath Jearim?: Topic 11. Seder Olam Rabbah's Confusing Chronology : Samuel, Saul and David: Topic 12: Seder Olam Chronological Discrepancies regarding Samuel, Saul & David. Topic 13: Apportioning the 63 years left for Samuel & Saul Topic 14: Seder Olam Rabbah : How many days in a Biblical year? Topic 15: Chronologies of Samuel,Saul, David & Solomon