This article has been designed for students as a quick study tool. In this article we look briefly at why the Chronologies in the Bible, Josephus and Seder Olam Rabbah are confusing. Bible Dates Topical Study tool for Students: Citations and References for students from over 100 Academic publications. When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years that measure 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. This can be clearly seen in the 400 line Calendar in Appendix Five. Seder Olam Rabbah, Josephus and everyone else, has relied upon the Biblical Chronological Data, but it was not recorded in a standard calendrical system. When you apply mathematics to the Biblical or Extra Biblical Synchronisms, those synchronisms work.
In Seder Olam Rabbah Topic 12 Seder Olam Chronological Discrepancies regarding Samuel, Saul & David under the title Confusion: The Effect of Compressing Time and Events the following statements were made:
The mishmash of information provided by Seder Olam Rabbah for Samuel, Saul and David is a predictable and natural consequence of trying to fit too much raw data into an unnaturally small amount of space (time).
There are 3 reasons why the narrative of Seder Olam Rabbah makes no sense.
1. Specific chronological data pertinent to Joshua, Samuel and Saul is missing from the received Biblical Texts
2. That text contains erroneous and misleading chronological information for the Period of the Judges of Israel.
3. The 20 years assigned in the Book of Judges to the Ark of the Covenant at Kiriath Jearim is incorrect
The only 'apparently correct' chronological reference for this time period, 1 Kings 6:1, has been 'tampered with by the redactors', 'is corrupt', and now both 'misinterpreted and misapplied'.
Our approach to the historical records of Israel has been in error.
The Error in Our Approaches to Biblical Chronology
The most fundamental error in all attempts to understand the Biblical and Extra Biblical Material is that we try to use the material in terms of Solar Year Calculations.
Those who try to use a standard Solar Year Calendar recognise its' uselessness
Some try to use the 364 day Jubilees Calendar Solar Year
Some try to use a prophetic 360 day calendar year
Some just give up and completely Spiritualise the chronological references
All of these approaches are incorrect
As an Example of what happens when you apply regular solar years to the Biblical Synchronisms for the Divided Kingdom period, the following tables demonstrate that the Period from Uzziah to Hezekiah is completely flawed.
Counting from 586 BCE to 701 BCE in literal Solar Years results in:
a). 701 BCE becomes Hezekiah's 24th year not his 14th year.
b) 702 BCE Hezekiah's 23rd year
c) 703 BCE Hezekiah's 22nd year
d) 713 BCE Hezekiah's 12th year
e) 722 BCE (Fall of Samaria) Hezekiah's 3rd year not his 6th year.
f) 724 BCE (Siege of Samaria) Hezekiah's 1st year not his 4th year.
g) 729 BCE Ahaz' 12th year
h) 730 BCE Ahaz' 11th year
i) 730 BCE Hoshea of Samaria 1st year
j) 734-732 BCE Syro-Ephraimic War ?Ahaz & Pekah.
k) 740 BCE Ahaz' 1st year.
However When working in Solar years counting down from the accepted date for the commencement of the reigns of Jehu (Israel) and Athaliah [Judah], that is, from 841 BCE to 701 BCE, the following is the result.
a) 701 BCE = Ahaz 13 th year
b) 702 BCE Hoshea commences to rule in Samaria
c) 703 BCE Pekah's 28th year.
d) 713 BCE Ahaz' 1st year (18th of Pekah)
e) 722 BCE Jotham's 8th Year & Pekah's 9th Year
f) 724 BCE Jotham's 6th Year & Pekah's 7th Year
g) 729 BCE Jotham's 1st year & 2nd Year of Pekah
h) 730 BCE Uzziah's 52nd year
i) 730 BCE Pekah's 1st year
j) 734-732 BCE Syro-Ephraimitic War must have been fought by Uzziah.
k) 740 BCE Uzziah's 42nd Year & Menehem's 4th year.
Solar Year Calculations are insufficient to understand Biblical and Extra Biblical Chronology.
The Biblical Data as it stands, exceeds available history for the parameters it sets. The KingsCalendar however, which is a computer generated mathematical formula, assigns each Biblical Year a value of 336 days, which reduces the overall Biblical Data by roughly 8%.
The King's Calendar Synchronism for the period Uzziah to Hezekiah
How does the King's Calendar Work
'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran is firstly A Calendar which is the computerised result of a study of the chronologies of the Books of Kings and Chronicles in the Bible, as well as of Josephus and of the Damascus Document of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Its' premise is that between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, which listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed. These 336 days derive probably from the 364 day Jubilees Calendar.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years that measure 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. This can be clearly seen in the 400 line Calendar in Appendix 5, from which the chart above was taken. 936 to 586 BCE:
General formula for Biblical Data conversion:
The formula for constructing the artificial calendar was:
'X' times 364 = 'Y' days
'Y' days divided by 336 = 'Z' artificial years.
'X' = any given number of 'real/solar' years
364 = perceived days in the sectarian calendar
'Y' = number of days calculated
336 = number of days in an artificial year
'Z' = artificial years = 1.083'X' and represents the original number of the converted years plus 8%.
To reverse the process by hand: 'Z' years times 336 equals 'Y' divided by 364 = the Original Number of 'X' years converted.
To see how effective this method is visit Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE:
Seder Olam Rabbah, Josephus and everyone else, relies upon the Biblical Chronological Data. That data is not recorded in any heretofore known calendrical system. When you apply mathematics to the Biblical or Extra Biblical Synchronisms, those synchronisms work.
The Principle of Linear Causality
The King's Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work. To see how effective this method is, SEE:Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE
Because it is a mathematical system, the King's Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It's like a 'domino effect'. Chronological references cannot be 'forced' to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or 'compressed' as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.
If any King's Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King's Calendar successfully defends its' position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King's Calendar is 'proven' wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.
Because of this, the King's Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel's history is unique, in that its' methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its' chronological predictions are able to be 'proved' or 'disproved'.
Copyright 2013 is held by the nominated authors on this article page.
The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam
About the KingsCalendar Publisher
R.P.BenDedek is the owner and Editor of KingsCalendar.com which was originally set up to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran'.
Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
R.P. BenDedek also writes social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both at KingsCalendar, and as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News in Maine USA.
He currently (2013) teaches Conversational English in SuZhou City Jiangsu Province in China.
Dates for Nabopolassar & Nebuchadrezzar Kings of Babylon - and - Josiah and Jehoiakim Kings of Judah as per (Wiseman.D.J. (1961) Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 BC) in the British Museum. Trustees of the British Museum. London) Using Babylonian Chronicles B.M. 22047 (p.65) and BM 21946 (p.67) But with a one (1) year adjustment for the Reigns of Nabopolassar and Nebuchadrezzar.
607 bce - Sep - Nabopolassar engaged at Bit-Hanunia / Urartu - 18th year - B.M. 22047 Line 1-4
607 bce - Dec - Josiah's 31st year commences
607 bce - Dec/Jan - Nabopolassar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 1-4
606 bce - May/Jun - Campaigning to the north - 19th year - B.M. 22047 Lines 5-7
606 bce - Jun/Jul - Nabopolassar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 8
606 bce - Jul/Aug - Necho heads North for Carchemish
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Nebuchadrezzar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 12
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Josiah of Judah slain
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Jehoahaz becomes king of Judah
606 bce - Sep/Oct - Nabopolassar Heads to Kimuhu - B.M. 22047 Line 12
606 bce - Nov - Nabopolassar captures Kimuhu - B.M. 22047 Line 14
606 bce - Nov - Jehoahaz deposed by Pharaoh Necho - taken to Riblah
606 bce - Nov - Jehoiakim commences - 1st Artificial year commences.
Topic 1. What is the Seder Olam Rabbah Topic 2. Seder Olam Chronological Chart : Adam to Abraham: Topic 3. Seder Olam & The 430 year Covenant with Abraham: Topic 4. Joseph in Seder Olam Rabbah: Topic 5. Seder Olam & The Pharaoh who knew not Joseph: Topic 6. Seder Olam & Israel Wandering in the Wilderness: Topic 7. 850 year/17 Jubilee Period, Joshua to Ezekiel's Vision in 14th year Exile: Topic 8. Comparative Chronologies:Seder Olam Rabbah, Josephus, Book of Judges: Topic 9. Ehud & 80 years of Peace - Judges 3:30 and Erroneous Biblical Chronology: Topic 10. Seder Olam:How Long was the Ark of the Covenant at Kiriath Jearim?: Topic 11. Seder Olam Rabbah's Confusing Chronology : Samuel, Saul and David: Topic 12: Seder Olam Chronological Discrepancies regarding Samuel, Saul & David. Topic 13: Apportioning the 63 years left for Samuel & Saul Topic 14: Seder Olam Rabbah : How many days in a Biblical year? Topic 15: Chronologies of Samuel,Saul, David & Solomon