Topical Study tool for Students: Prophet Samuel and King Saul: The King's Calendar computer generated mathematical application of the Biblical and Extra Biblical Data calculates the data for this time frame under discussion, to include: Entrance to Canaan 1412 BCE / Judgeship of Joshua 25 years (as per Josephus) / Book of Judges Data 450 years less 102 years = 348 years / Samuel 32 years / Saul 31 years / David 40 years / Counting 4 years of Solomons Reign To arrive at a total of 480 Artificial Years Which Extends between Entrance into Canaan in 1412 BCE until and including Solomon's 4th year in 973 BCE
Seder Olam Short Topic No 13: Samuel and Saul - 63 Years.
In concluding Seder Olam Rabbah (No.6): Time Compression: Samuel, Saul and David, it was stated that;
Failing a Paroxysm of Religious Denial, one must concede that the narrative and chronological data provided in, 'The Book of Judges' (for the Period of the Judges), The Book of Samuel Chapter 6:1 & 7:2 (Ark of the Covenant) and the narrative detail in 1 Kings 6:1 Masorete, (480 years) and Septuagint (440 years), is in error.
The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran, which is a mathematically computer generated synchronism of Biblical Chronological data, provides the best demonstration of the correct chronology for this time period.
From Entry into Canaan there are 480 artificial years to Solomon's 4th year, of which 44 can be ascribed to David and Solomon, 348 can be ascribed to the Period of the Judges (by correcting the Book of Judges) 25 years can be deducted for Joshua (as per Josephus), leaving a balance of 63 years for Samuel and Saul.
While it was easy to decide the combined total, the process of apportioning it individually, is a little more complex in explanation.
This is what we will do in this section. But first let's revisit some things that appeared in that article.
The facts & The Math
1 Kings 6:1 indicates that 440 years elapsed between Entry into Canaan and Solomon's 4th year.
The Book of Judges gives us 450 years and leaves Joshua & Samuel out.
There is error in the Book of Judges.
Seder Olam gives Joshua 28 years & Josephus gives him 25 years.
We have seen that there is not enough time to fit the reigns of Samuel and Saul but -
The 450 Biblical years for the Period of Judges can be reduced by 102 years to 348 years.
From 440 years (LXX) remove 348 years = 92 years
From 92 years remove 43 years (David and Solomon) = 49 years
From 49 years remove either 25 or 28 for Joshua = 21 or 24 years for Samuel & Saul
1 Samuel 7:2 [Ark at Kiriath Jearim 20 years till David's 7th year] indicates that Samuel and Saul should only be assigned the 13 years indicated by Seder Olam Rabbah. (Josephus records 32 years)
The first thing we do is provide a chart demonstrating the King's Calendar determination of the chronologies for each person mentioned from the time that the Israelites entered Canaan, until Solomon.
Samuel 32 years & Saul 31 years
The Data for Saul's age and length of reign has been transmitted corruptly.
1 Sam 13:1, literally reads that Saul was only one year old when he began to reign and that he reigned two years.
Second Chronicles 36:21 implies that the Babylonian Exile was necessitated by the failure to observe the land's 'Sabbath Year' rests, and that this had been an ongoing problem for 490 years.
The Biblical chronologies list 473.5 years from David to Zedekiah
Those chronologies overlap by 13.5 years The number of years from David to Babylonian exile = 460 years
This leaves 30 years for Saul.
In artificial years this takes us to November 1038 BCE.
From the age of Saul's son Ishbosheth (2 Sam 2:10, 40 years) at the time of Saul's death, we know that Saul was around about Sixty years old when he died.
1 Sam 9:2 indicates that Saul was young, handsome and tall when he commenced to reign.
If Saul was something and one years old when he became king, and reigned something and two years, he will have been either 21 or 31 yrs old when he commenced his reign (in order to qualify as young and handsome), and reigned at least 32 or 42 yrs, to have left a 40 year old son.
Second Chronicles 36:21 as an indictment of the Monarchal period of Israel, together with First Samuel 9:2, and Second Samuel 2:10 appears to indicate that Saul's reign extended from the age of 31 years and that he reigned 32 years [31 years + accession year].
The Discrepancy between 30 & 32 is discussed in Chapter 19 of the King's Calendar and relates to the issue of Nisan/Tishri New Year.
Conclusion It appears that Saul should have a reign of 30 (ie: 490 460 = 30) or 32 years ( 1 Samuel 13:1 "and reigned ? 2 years")
The King's Calendar can demonstrate both and additionally that Saul reigned 28 Solar Years. [Ref: Footnote on Saul]
What Josephus Says
Antiquities 6:13:5 Josephus says: Now he governed and presided over the people alone, after the death of Eli the high priest, twelve years, and eighteen years together with Saul the king.
Antiquities 6:14:9 Josephus says: Now Saul, when he had reigned eighteen years while Samuel was alive, and after his death two [and twenty], ended his life in this manner.
Josephus provides the two of them with 32 years, which in view of the King's Calendar results, may indicate that there was at least one document (if not two) that indicated that Samuel and/or Saul each reigned 32 years. It is possible that the later redactors could not fit all the data into the available time, and decided that their combined total was 32 years.
At any rate, it does seem like Josephus had at his disposal a record of 32 years that applied to Samuel, Saul or both.
The length of Samuel's judgeship can be discovered by considering the foregoing in relation to Saul, and giving him the balance. However, the length of his judgeship is also connected to the issue of Ehud and whether Ehud should be given 18 years or 8 years. An 18 year Judgeship for Ehud gives Samuel 32 years, while an 8 year Judgeship for Ehud provides Samuel with a 42 year judgeship.
In addition to the aforementioned 32 years given by Josephus to Samuel and Saul, there might also be the possibility that the reference in 1 Samuel 13:1, following on the heels of chapter 12, may originally have referred to Samuel and not Saul. Additionally, when the King's Calendar calculated the period of the Judges, the process involved dividing the period according to the judgeship of Jephthah in reference to the city of Heshbon, and determined that 282 artificial years transpired to Jephthah's 1st year. To reduce Ehud's judgeship from 18 years to 8 years, would be to reduce this 282 years figure (from Heshbon to Jephthah) to 272 years, which makes the 300 year reference to Heshbon's capture even more untenable. The simplest and best fit for Samuel is 32 years.
The issue of there being 30 years left for Saul to Reign (490 - 460 = 30) and 32 years (reigned something and 2 years) and being recorded on the King's Calendar as reigning 31 years, is an interesting but complicated topic. The following is a list of statements found in Chapter 19 of the King's Calendar, and below them are three charts. No further explanation is offered in this simple article.
The original record of Saul's reign will have measured it from a Tishri New Year
This is around September/October
Based on a Twenty-Eight (28 ) Solar year Reign
Saul will have commenced his first year in September/October 1038 BCE
The Redactors however, worked off a Nisan New Year (March/April)
They may have calculated that he commenced in March/April 1038 BCE
They will rightly have converted the Twenty-Eight Solar Years into Thirty Artificial years
If there was a record that Saul was First Anointed Five Months prior to becoming king
Then his First Anointing took place around May 1038 BCE (Tishri less Five months)
The Redactors however will have calculated it to be November 1039 BCE
This would push Saul's reign back two artificial years both starting in 1039 BCE
The combined total of Accession and Regnal years will be Thirty-Two years
It may also be that 1 Samuel 13:1 originally referred to Samuel
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix Five to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]
General formula for Biblical Data conversion:
The formula for constructing the artificial calendar was:
'X' times 364 equals 'Y' days
'Y' days divided by 336 equals 'Z' artificial years.
'X' = any given number of 'real/solar' years
364 = perceived days in the sectarian calendar
'Y' = number of days calculated
336 = number of days in an artificial year
'Z' = artificial years = 1.083'X' and represents the original number of the converted years plus 8%.
To reverse the process by hand:
'Z' years times 336 equals 'Y' divided by 364 equals the Number of 'X' years converted.
To see how effective this method is, SEE:Appendix 5:Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE:
The Principle of Linear Causality
The King's Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work. To see how effective this method is, SEE:Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE
Because it is a mathematical system, the King's Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It's like a 'domino effect'. Chronological references cannot be 'forced' to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or 'compressed' as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.
If any King's Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King's Calendar successfully defends its' position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King's Calendar is 'proven' wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.
Because of this, the King's Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel's history is unique, in that its' methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its' chronological predictions are able to be 'proved' or 'disproved'.
Bibliography and related articles at the Very Bottom of the Page
Copyright 2013 is held by the nominated authors on this article page.
The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam
About the KingsCalendar Publisher
R.P.BenDedek is the owner and Editor of KingsCalendar.com which was originally set up to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran'.
Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
R.P. BenDedek also writes social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both at KingsCalendar, and as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News in Maine USA.
He has been teaching Conversational English in China since 2003 and currently (2013) is teaching in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province.