The King's Calendar' is a computer generated mathematical synchronous chronological presentation of the history of Ancient Israel, as principally recorded in the Biblical books of Kings and Chronicles, and sets forth Apologetics for and the results of R.P.BenDedek's discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Books of the Bible, Josephus,the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah - Israel Timeline charts: Citations and References for students from over 100 Academic publications:
Seder Olam Rabbah (No.6): Time Compression: Samuel, Saul and David
This Article is Divided into the Following Sections.
2. Septuagint 440 & Masorete 480 at 1 Kings 6:1
3. Seder Olam Chronological Discrepancies regarding Samuel
4. Confusion: The Effect of Compressing Time and Events
5. Revisiting the Biblical Record
6. Samuel & Saul: The Correct Chronology
9. Bibliography & Related Reading
In the Previous to last article (No. 4), we noted that the Seder Olam Rabbah calculations for and corrections to the Book of Judges, appears to derive from the need to fit the Period of the Judges into 397 years.
This was based on the assumption that the Septuagint version of 1 Kings 6:1 indicates that from the Entrance into Canaan to the 4th year of Solomon, 440 years transpire. Subtract 43 years for David and Solomon, and you have only 397 years in which to fit the period of the Judges plus the reign of Saul.
And in the last Article [No.5] we looked at the Discrepancy between 1 Samuel Chapter 6:1 and 1 Samuel 7:2 in relation to the Ark of the Covenant, and noted that either or both Scriptural references are incorrect in relation to the time that the Ark of the Covenant was in the hands of the Philistines, and that relying upon them leads to chronological miscalculation.
The problem for all concerned with chronologising the ancient history of Israel (and this includes the redactors working on the Book of Judges and 1 Kings 6:1), is that there does not appear to be enough time in which to fit King Saul's reign. The reason for this, is that both the Septuagint and Masorete versions of 1 King 6:1 are flawed in their narratives [not their chronologies].
2. Septuagint's 440 years & Masorete's 480 years at 1 Kings 6:1
i)1 Kings 6:1
Masorete: 1 Kings 6:1 And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Ziv, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD.
Septuagint: 1 Kings 6:1 And it came to pass in the four hundred and fortieth year after the departure of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the fourth year and second month of the reign of King Solomon over Israel, that the king commanded that they should take great and costly stones for the foundation of the house, and hewn stones. And the men of Solomon, and the men of Hiram hewed the stones, and laid them for a foundation. In the fourth year he laid the foundation of the house of the Lord, in the month of Ziv, in the second month.
These two documents are called 'Direct Documentary Evidences' and ought to corroborate each other. Unfortunately, they don't. (Footnote On: Evidence) The usual explanation for this contradiction in the number of years provided, is that the Septuagint records only the years since entry into Canaan whilst the authorised version includes the Forty (40) years in the wilderness, and thus is a reference to the exodus itself, [ie.out of the land of Egypt].
Whilst this seems logical, the 'King's Calendar' indicates that both texts, despite divergent renderings, refer to the same event, Entry into Canaan, in 1412 BCE.
The 'King's Calendar' proposition is that the Septuagint rendering is 'the original solar year reference', not yet altered in the accepted text of the mid-third century BCE when the Septuagint was composed. The Authorised version at 1 King's 6:1 is recorded in artificial years and therefore the Exodus occurs forty years earlier in 1449 BCE, occurring 520 artificial years prior to the commencement of the Temple in Solomon's 4th year.
Furthermore, the King's Calendar, indicates that the Septuagint Version, originally referred to Solomon's 1st year.
ii) Facts & Evidence
Let's face facts, since the Book of Judges, (which fails to provide details for Joshua and Samuel) provides 450 years for the Period of the Judges, we know immediately that there is error in the text. [From 440 years (LXX) take 450 years for the period of the Judges plus 43 years for David and Solomon plus unknown years for Joshua and Samuel = how much?]
The facts & The Math
1 Kings 6:1 indicates that 440 years elapsed between Entry into Canaan and Solomon's 4th year.
The Book of Judges gives us 450 years and leaves Joshua & Samuel out.
There is error in the Book of Judges.
Seder Olam gives Joshua 28 years & Josephus gives him 25 years.
We have seen that there is not enough time to fit the reigns of Samuel and Saul ?but -
The 450 Biblical years for the Period of Judges can be reduced by 102 years to 348 years.
From 440 years (LXX) remove 348 years = 92 years
From 92 years remove 43 years (David and Solomon) = 49 years
From 49 years remove either 25 or 28 for Joshua = 21 or 24 years for Samuel & Saul
1 Samuel 7:2 [Ark at Kiriath Jearim 20 years till David's 7th year] indicates that Samuel and Saul should only be assigned the 13 years indicated by Seder Olam Rabbah. (Josephus records 32 years)
Result: The Math doesn't work
According to the Legal Rules for the giving of Evidence and Testimony, the moment that some part of alleged factual statements, evidence, or testimony is demonstrated to be erroneous, the balance of that evidence becomes inadmissible; and the moment one part of it is 'interpreted to mean' something different to what is stated, then the balance of it is permitted to be 'interpreted to mean something else', in accordance with a contrary 'opinion'. [Opinion evidence is not generally speaking, permitted in the courts. [Refer to Footnotes: Rules of Evidence]
iii)Alternative Opinions & The King's Calendar Opinion
If there is an error in the Septuagint, and it should not read, 'after the departure of the children of Israel out of Egypt', but 'after they entered Canaan', then it is possible to argue that the Masorete Version which reads, 'after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt', ought to read, 'after they entered Canaan'.
Once you begin to put forth 'theories' about 'how & why' an error occurred, it is possible to create a whole list of scenarios as to what the 'original' text 'ought to have read'. For Example:
(1.)The 480 years of the Masorete 1 Kings 6:1, was meant to refer to Entrance into Canaan
Book of Judges 450 years less 102 years of error = 348 years
480 years less 348 years = 132 years
132 less 25 Joshua (Per Josephus) = 107 years
107 years less 40 years for David less 3 years until Solomon's 4th year = 64 years for Samuel and Saul
(2.)The 440 years of 1 Kings 6:1 was meant to refer to the 7th year of David when he became King over all Israel.
Book of Judges 450 years less 102 years of error = 348 years
440 years less 348 years = 92 years
92 less 25 Joshua (per Josephus) = 67 years
67 years less 7 years for David = 60 years for Samuel and Saul
(3.) The 440 years of 1 Kings 6:1 was meant to refer to the completion of Solomon's temple in his 11th year.
Book of Judges 450 years less 102 years of error = 348 years
440 years less 348 years = 92 years
92 years less 51 years for David and Solomon = 41 years
41 years less 28 for Joshua (per Seder Olam) = 13 years for Samuel and Saul
Seder Olam Rabbah gives 13 years for Samuel and Saul combined but not in relation to Solomon's 11th year.
- OR -
(4.)The King's Calendar Opinion
The Septuagint 440 Solars years of 1 Kings 6:1 is an original solar year reference referring to the period between Entrance into Canaan and Solomon's 1st year.
Canaan entered in 1412 BCE & Solomon's 1st year is 973 BCE
1412 BCE less 440 Solar years (use 339 years to include both years) = 973 BCE
Using a computer generated artificial calendar, the King's Calendar calculates that 973 BCE is Solomon's 1st year.
It calculates that 970 BCE is Solomon's 4th year.
It Additionally calculates that from 1412 BCE [Entry to Canaan] less 480 Artificial years = 970 BCE - Solomon's 4th year.
***** Which means? *****
(a) The King's Calendar demonstrates that the original 440 Solar Year reference at 1 Kings 6:1 in the Septuagint, has as its' parameters, Entry into Canaan & the First Year of Solomon
(b) The King's Calendar demonstrates that the Masorete 480 Artificial Year reference at 1 Kings 6:1, has as it's parameters Entry into Canaan & the 4th year of Solomon
(c) The King's Calendar demonstrates that when a 40 artificial year wandering period is added to these 480 artificial years, the resulting 520 artificial years, = 480 Solar years
(d) It suggests that the Original Text read , 480 [solar] years between the Exodus and Solomon's 1st year.
(e) It suggests that the Masorete was altered through insertion of artificial chronology, which of necessity required shifting both parameters for the reference, but only shifted the latter from the 1st year original reference to the 4th year current reference.
(f) It suggests that the Septuagint version is a composite of the artificial Masorete version and an original solar year version, which results in two discrepancies.
1. It didn't alter the first parameter to Read Entry into Canaan, and
2. it altered the 2nd parameter to Solomon's 4th year. [Read the Septuagint version and note the redundancy in relation to 'the 4th year'.]
The desire to 'Solve' chronological problems leads many people to 'believe' many things, and whilst the King's Calendar is Unique in that since it is a computer generated mathematical formula, it is able to be scientifically proved or disproved, others like Seder Olam have had to make do with what they could 'guess'.
Guessing leads to error, which becomes more and more obvious as we check both narrative and chronological details for Samuel, Saul and David, provided by the Seder Olam Rabbah.
3. Seder Olam Chronological Discrepancies regarding Samuel, Saul & David.
(i)What does Seder Olam Actually record
The following in point fashion, is a list of Seder Olam Statements, some of which are 'editorial extrapolations' demonstrating the consequences' of what it says.
Samuel died aged 52 years ?Samuel lived only to be 52 years and a little
Samuel Judged Israel 10 years - "The people of Kiriath Jearim came?And from the day the ark was installed at Kiriath Jearim, there were many days, they added to twenty years? Subtract from these the seven years that David ruled over Judah at Hebron, there are left 13 years. Subtract from these 10 for Samuel himself and two for Samuel and Saul.13-2=11
They added to twenty years (Ark at Kiriath Jearim).
Samuel Judged Israel 11 years ?"He (Eli) had judged Israel for 40 years." There are 13 years remaining. Subtract from them one year for Hannah's pregnancy and 11 years for Samuel and 1 year for Samuel and Saul, one gets 52 years.
Samuel was old at the time Saul was made King
1 Samuel 1:1 And it came to pass, when Samuel was old, that he made his sons judges over Israel. :5 And they said unto him: 'Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways; now make us a king to judge us like all the nations.'
Saul was young and goodly when he became king 1 Samuel 9:1,16
Saul reigned only 1 or 2 years and died 4 months after Samuel ?Samuel died before the death of Saul about four months as it is said...
David the Shepherd Boy killed Goliath, had a long war with Saul and Turned 30 in just 2 years.
"Now there was long war between the house of Saul and the house of David; and David waxed stronger and stronger, but the house of Saul waxed weaker and weaker"
Samuel anointed David in Saul's 2nd year
David was 29 years of age when he was first anointed ?and -
Within 1 year, David the Shepherd boy was either 23 or 30 years old depending on whether 2 Sam 5:4 relates his age to his 1st or 7th year.
Young and Goodly Saul had a 40 year old son "Forty years was Ishbosheth when he became king and two years he ruled 2 Samuel 2:10. - therefore -
Saul was at least 55-60 years old at death, and therefore 53-58 years old when he became king
Saul at 55 years old was young and goodly yet Samuel was an old man at 52
David at 70 years was an 'old' man, but lived long enough to see his grandson Rehoboam born, despite the fact that Solomon (according to the Seder Olam) was only 12 years old at the time
Result: A Mishmash of Confusing Data.
4. Confusion: The Effect of Compressing Time and Events
The mishmash of information provided by Seder Olam Rabbah for Samuel, Saul and David is a predictable and natural consequence of trying to fit too much raw data into an unnaturally small amount of space (time). A gigabyte of information cannot be stored on a megabyte of floppy disk. It doesn't work unless you can compress it. But how does a hard copy of a compressed file read?
There are 3 reasons why the narrative of Seder Olam Rabbah makes no sense.
1. Specific chronological data pertinent to Joshua, Samuel and Saul is missing from the received Biblical Texts
2. That text contains erroneous and misleading chronological information for the Period of the Judges of Israel.
3. The 20 years assigned in the Book of Judges to the Ark of the Covenant at Kiriath Jearim is incorrect
4. The only 'apparently correct' chronological reference for this time period, 1 Kings 6:1, has been 'tampered with by the redactors', 'is corrupt', and now both 'misinterpreted and misapplied'.
5. Our approach to the historical records of Israel has been in error
We need to re-examine our 'traditional' approaches and opinions.
5. Revisiting the Biblical Record
a) 1 King's 6:1 - The King's Calendar.
The 480 years of 1 King's 6:1 are Artificial years
They were originally recorded as Solar years extending from the Exodus to Solomon's 1st year ?From 1449 BCE to 970 BCE
They were transcribed into an artificial Calendar that ought to have shown 480 years from Entry into Canaan to Solomon's 4th year, but the reference first parameter was left as at Exodus whilst the final parameter was changed to Solomon's 4th year.
1 King's 6:1 actually records 480 Artificial years from the Entrance into Canaan to Solomon's 4th year.
Therefore The Time frame for the Period of the Judges plus King Saul = 480 less 4 years for Solomon, and 40 years for David = 436 years.
b)The Book of Judges: Period of the Judges.
We have already discussed the Period of the Judges in the last article, and determined that there were a total of 102 years that can be removed from the 450 years that the Book of Judges assigns to the Period of the Judges.
We removed 62 years from Ehud ?Changing 80 years to 18 years.
We removed 40 years of Philistine Oppression during the judgeships of Samson and Eli.
Therefore 450 years ?102 = 348 years for the Period of the Judges to which must be added time for Joshua and Samuel.
From the total available 436 years [Section a)] subtract 348 years = 88 years
From these 88 years subtract 25 years [Josephus] or 28 years [Seder Olam] for Joshua, and the Balance for Samuel and Saul is either 63 or 60 years.
c) 1 Samuel 6:1 and 7:2 and the Ark of the Covenant
The two references in the Book of Samuel to the Ark of the Covenant are the result of redactorial alteration. They should read
a)1 Samuel 6:1 1 And the ark of the LORD was in the country of the Philistines 70 years (not 7 months).
b) 1 Samuel 7:2 And it came to pass, from the day that the ark abode in Kiriath-jearim, that ... all the house of Israel yearned after the LORD
From these 70 years remove 7 years as they apply to David, and the Balance is 63 years for the Period of Samuel and Saul.
63 years for Samuel and Saul is one of the optional results in Section b) above.
Result: Samuel and Saul share a combined total of 63 years of the Total 480 years that transpired between the Entrance into Canaan and Solomon's 4th year.
6. Samuel & Saul: The Correct Chronology
The King's Calendar computer generated mathematical application of the Biblical and Extra Biblical Data calculates the data for this time frame under discussion, to include:
Entrance to Canaan ?14112 BCE
Judgeship of Joshua ?25 years (as per Josephus)
Book of Judges Data ?450 years less 102 years = 348 years
Samuel 32 years
Saul 31 years
David 40 years
Counting 4 years of Solomons Reign
To arrive at a total of 480 Artificial Years
Which Extend between Entrance into Canaan in 1412 BCE until and including Solomon's 4th year in 973 BCE
Failing a Paroxysm of Religious Denial, one must concede that the narrative and chronological data provided in, 'The Book of Judges' (for the Period of the Judges), The Book of Samuel Chapter 6:1 & 7:2 (Ark of the Covenant) and the narrative detail in 1 Kings 6:1 Masorete, (480 years) and Septuagint (440 years), is in error.
The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran, which is a mathematically computer generated synchronism of Biblical Chronological data, provides the best demonstration of the correct chronology for this time period.
From Entry into Canaan there are 480 artificial years to Solomon's 4th year, of which 44 can be ascribed to David and Solomon, 348 can be ascribed to the Period of the Judges (by correcting the Book of Judges) 25 years can be deducted for Joshua (as per Josephus), leaving a balance of 63 years for Samuel and Saul.
While it was easy to decide the combined total, the process of apportioning it individually, is a little more complex in explanation. As that exercise does not fall within the scope of this article, it will be presented as an Addendum stored in the Seder Olam Topical Excerpts SectionTopic 13: Apportioning the 63 years left for Samuel & Saul
In the Next Article, we commence a study of the Monarchal period of Israel.
Seder Olam Rabbah Data and Citations are taken from:
Direct Evidence is evidence of the facts in issue themselves and will be constituted either by the testimony of a witness who perceived the event or the production of a legally admissible document which constitutes the fact in issue.'(Bates,1985,p.2)
Circumstantial Evidence is evidence of facts which are not in issue, from which a fact in issue may be inferred. (Bates, 1985, p.2)
Corroboration Corroborating testimony must be independent, and must directly indicate or implicate a direct relation to the issue in question. (Bates, 1985, p.82)
Presumption and assumption are generally speaking, synonymous. In law, presumptions cannot be given concrete value. That we believe (presume or assume) that something is so, is insufficient in law to justify legal 'action'. Presumption and assumption are not permitted as evidence in legal issues. (See Bates, 1985, p.46)
Opinions, Assumptions and Presumptions are not facts in relation to evidence. [For a sociological explanation of why presumption is often accepted as fact, see Bates, 1985, p.46]
Presumption can rightly be described as an attempt to establish as a fact something for which no legal evidence or proof exists.
A clear connection may be seen between 'Opinion' and 'subjective inferences', which like presumption and assumption, are inadmissible in court. [Ligertwood (1988, p.284) in discussing 'opinion evidence' makes it clear, that opinion is an attempt to establish a fact from other facts]
In law, expert witnesses are not permitted to become involved in final decision making with regard to the 'fact' of a disputed matter or issue. [Gobbo. Et.Al.(1979, p.430) The exception occurs when there is no other way of concluding the matter. In such cases, experts must be both highly qualified and impartial.
Issues relating to Authentic and Accurate Evidence Refer to : Rule 902. Self-authentication : Extrinsic evidence of authenticity as a condition precedent to admissibility in relation to both authenticity and accuracy of documents.
Conflicting Expert Opinions When we rely on the 'testimony' of 'highly qualified expert witnesses', the question of "doubt" becomes clouded by our inability to assess the validity of the testimony. This is especially so in cases in which 'experts' offer 'conflicting opinion'. (Freckelton.I.R. 1987. p.165)
Vested Interests of Experts Experts must be free from prejudice. ([See also: Legal Information Institute : Federal Rules of Evidence : ARTICLE I. GENERAL PROVISIONS - may testify if (1) the testimony is based upon sufficient facts or data, (2) the testimony is the product of reliable principles and methods, and (3) the witness has applied the principles and methods reliably to the facts of the case.]
Discussion on cognitive and affective decision making processes in relation to decisions made by jurors when experts testify (Frekelton .I.R. 1987.p 137 & Vinson.D.E.1985)
ii. King's Calendar Chronological Research
'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran is a study of the chronologies of the Books of Kings and Chronicles in the Bible, as well as of Josephus and of the Damascus Document of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix Five to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]
iii. General formula for Biblical Data conversion:
The formula for constructing the artificial calendar was:
'X' times 364 = 'Y' days
'Y' days divided by 336 = 'Z' artificial years.
'X' = any given number of 'real/solar' years
364 = perceived days in the sectarian calendar
'Y' = number of days calculated
336 = number of days in an artificial year
'Z' = artificial years = 1.083'X' and represents the original number of the converted years plus 8%.
To reverse the process by hand: 'Z' years times 336 equals 'Y' divided by 364 = the Original Number of 'X' years converted.
To see how effective this method is, SEE: Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE:
iv. Solar Year Calculations
The Biblical Data as it stands exceeds available history for the parameters it sets. The KingsCalendar, which assigns each Biblical Year a value of 336 days, reduces the overall Biblical Data by roughly 8%.
When working in Solar Years, many problems arise. For example, Counting from 586 BCE to 701 BCE in literal Solar Years makes:
a). 701 BCE Hezekiah's 24th year not his 14th year.
b) 702 BCE Hezekiah's 23rd year
c) 703 BCE Hezekiah's 22nd year
d) 713 BCE Hezekiah's 12th year
e) 722 BCE (Fall of Samaria) Hezekiah's 3rd year not his 6th year.
f) 724 BCE (Siege of Samaria) Hezekiah's 1st year not his 4th year.
g) 729 BCE Ahaz' 12th year
h) 730 BCE Ahaz' 11th year
i) 730 BCE Hoshea of Samaria 1st year
j) 734-732 BCE Syro-Ephraimic War ?Ahaz & Pekah.
k) 740 BCE Ahaz' 1st year.
However When working in Solar years counting down from the accepted date for the commencement of the reigns of Jehu (Israel) and Athaliah [Judah], that is, from 841 BCE to 701 BCE, the following is the result.
a) 701 BCE = Ahaz 13 th year
b) 702 BCE Hoshea commences to rule in Samaria
c) 703 BCE Pekah's 28th year.
d) 713 BCE Ahaz' 1st year (18th of Pekah)
e) 722 BCE Jotham's 8th Year & Pekah's 9th Year
f) 724 BCE Jotham's 6th Year & Pekah's 7th Year
g) 729 BCE Jotham's 1st year & 2nd Year of Pekah
h) 730 BCE Uzziah's 52nd year
i) 730 BCE Pekah's 1st year
j) 734-732 BCE Syro-Ephraimitic War must have been fought by Uzziah.
k) 740 BCE Uzziah's 42nd Year & Menehem's 4th year.
Solar Year Calculations are insufficient to understand Biblical and Extra Biblical Chronology.
9. Related Reading
More Seder Olam Articles after Bibliography:
Bibliography and related articles
Eisenman R.H., Wise.M. (1992) The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered U.K.Element Books. pp.92/93
Grimal.N. (1992, p. 392) Assumed to be from "A History of Ancient Egypt" [Reference not in K.C. Bibliography.]
Marston. C. (1935) The Bible is true: The lessons of the 1925-34 excavations in Bible lands summarized and explained. Australia. Angus and Robertson.
The King's Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work. To see how effective this method is, SEE:Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE
Because it is a mathematical system, the King's Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It's like a 'domino effect'. Chronological references cannot be 'forced' to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or 'compressed' as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.
If any King's Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King's Calendar successfully defends its' position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King's Calendar is 'proven' wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.
Because of this, the King's Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel's history is unique, in that its' methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its' chronological predictions are able to be 'proved' or 'disproved'.
Copyright 2013 is held by the nominated authors on this article page.
The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam
About the KingsCalendar Publisher
R.P.BenDedek is the owner and Editor of KingsCalendar.com which was originally set up to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran'.
Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
R.P. BenDedek also writes social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both at KingsCalendar, and as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News in Maine USA.
He currently (2013) teaches Conversational English in SuZhou City Jiangsu Province in China.
Dates for Nabopolassar & Nebuchadrezzar Kings of Babylon - and - Josiah and Jehoiakim Kings of Judah as per (Wiseman.D.J. (1961) Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 BC) in the British Museum. Trustees of the British Museum. London) Using Babylonian Chronicles B.M. 22047 (p.65) and BM 21946 (p.67) But with a one (1) year adjustment for the Reigns of Nabopolassar and Nebuchadrezzar.
607 bce - Sep - Nabopolassar engaged at Bit-Hanunia / Urartu - 18th year - B.M. 22047 Line 1-4
607 bce - Dec - Josiah's 31st year commences
607 bce - Dec/Jan - Nabopolassar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 1-4
606 bce - May/Jun - Campaigning to the north - 19th year - B.M. 22047 Lines 5-7
606 bce - Jun/Jul - Nabopolassar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 8
606 bce - Jul/Aug - Necho heads North for Carchemish
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Nebuchadrezzar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 12
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Josiah of Judah slain
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Jehoahaz becomes king of Judah
606 bce - Sep/Oct - Nabopolassar Heads to Kimuhu - B.M. 22047 Line 12
606 bce - Nov - Nabopolassar captures Kimuhu - B.M. 22047 Line 14
606 bce - Nov - Jehoahaz deposed by Pharaoh Necho - taken to Riblah
606 bce - Nov - Jehoiakim commences - 1st Artificial year commences.