The King's Calendar' is a computer generated mathematical synchronous chronological presentation of the history of Ancient Israel, as principally recorded in the Biblical books of Kings and Chronicles, and sets forth Apologetics for and the results of R.P.BenDedek's discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Books of the Bible, Josephus,the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah - Israel Timeline charts: Citations and References for students from over 100 Academic publications:
Seder Olam Rabbah (No.5): Samuel, and Ark of the Covenant.
This Article is Divided into the Following Sections.
2. The Difficult Chronology
3. Chronology for 'The Ark' at Kiriath Jearim.
5. Footnotes - Principle of Linear Causality
6. Related Reading & Bibliography
In the last article, we ended at Section 7. "Josephus & 397 years", the point of which was to make a connection between the 397 years ascribed by Seder Olam Rabbah for the Period of the Judges, and the record in [Septuagint] 1 Kings 6:1 to a 440 year period extending between Entry into Canaan and Solomon's 4th year when he commenced building the Temple.
We also looked at Josephus' figures and those from the King's Calendar for this time period, and observed the chronological differences, and noted in particular the judgeship of Ehud and it's relationship to the chronologies of Samuel and Saul.
These were important points to draw to your attention, for at this point in the Bible, the chronological record has been corrupted, and it is not easy to get a clear chronological picture of the reigns of Samuel and Saul.
The Seder Olam Rabbah attempts to enlighten as to the chronological order of events that transpire between the death of the priest Eli and King David. In doing so however, it generates problems of its own.
Before we discuss any issue here, we will look at the following 'point fashion' presentation of what the Seder Olam actually says. Whole sentences have been broken up to draw attention to chronological information.
What it says.
Eli governed Israel for forty years.
On the day of his death - the Ark was captured
"The ark of the Eternal was in the fields of the Philistines for seven months.
From the day the ark was installed at Kiriath Jearim, there were twenty years
He now calculates these 20 years
Subtract  seven years that David ruled over Judah at Hebron
Subtract  ten years for Samuel himself
Subtract  two years for Samuel and Saul.
At the beginning of these 20 years they brought the Tabernacle to Nob.
Even though the Ark of the Eternal was at Kiriath Jearim
They sacrificed at Nob for 13 years and 7 years at Gibeon. [Thus we have 20 years]
At the end of 20 years did David bring up the Ark of the Eternal to the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite (2 Sam. 6:11)
"and the Ark of the Eternal stayed in the house of Obed Edom the Gittite for three months."
Discussing Saul and his reign
(1 Sam. 13:1) "One year Saul was in his reign ?
Samuel said to Saul when he anointed him (1 Sam. 10:8 ) "Descend before me to Gilgal ...
He descended the first year, smote Nahash the Ammonite, and Israel anointed him.
The second year he descended and did not keep his promise.
(l Sam. 13:13) "Samuel said to Saul; you acted foolishly, you did not keep the commandment of your God
At that time, [ie. Saul's 2nd year] David was anointed as it is said (1 Sam. 16:1)
when he was 29 years old.
Calculating Samuel's judgeship
Samuel lived only to be 52 years and a little [no mention of where 52 years come]
(1 Sam. 4:18 ): "He [Eli] had judged Israel for 40 years."
There are 13 years remaining.
Subtract from them one year for Hannah's pregnancy
11 years for Samuel
1 year for Samuel and Saul, one gets 52 years.
Samuel died before the death of Saul about four months as it is said (1 Sam. 27:7): "The number of days that David dwelt in the fields of the Philistines were some days and four months."
Back to Discussing David's Reign
"Forty years was Ishbosheth when he became king and two years he ruled ?
It turns out that the kingdom over Israel was vacant for 5 years.
(2 Sam. 5:3): "All the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron ?
At that time David was anointed a second time.
"Thirty years was David when he became king and forty years he ruled."
Having listed the relevant chronological points that the Seder Olam Rabbah makes for this time period, we will draw aside for awhile, to examine the chronological issues regarding the Ark, its' capture and return, for they have bearing on our chronological perception of these times. [The contradiction in relation to Samuel's judgeship 10 / 11 years will be dealt with in another article].
3. The Ark of the Covenant at Kiriath Jearim.
The issue of how long the Ark of the Covenant was at Kiriath Jearim, is important to Biblical Chronology, for it is a defining chronological reference for this time period.
1 Samuel 7:2 states: "And it came to pass, from the day that the ark abode in Kiriath-jearim, that the time was long; for it was twenty years; and all the house of Israel yearned after the Lord."
But 1 Samuel 4:18 & 6:1 tell us that the Ark of the Covenant was captured on the day of Eli's death, and that it remained in the hand of the Philistines for 7 months.
Here then is an apparent contradiction. The difficulty with this time period, is that the reference in 1 Samuel 7:2, to the Ark remaining at Kiriath-jearim 20 years until David's 7th year, is the only Biblical reference from which a chronology can be built, because the balance of the Biblical chronological data for this time period, is either corrupt or missing. Without any other references, there is no corroboration for either of these contradictory references. 'Corroboration' : Refer: The Law, Rules of Evidence & Archaeology Part 1.
i) The Real Difficulty with 1 Samuel 7:2
There are quite a number of difficulties with the primary text reading of 1 Samuel 7:2, for irrespective of the contradiction in 1 Samuel Chapter 6, and despite the fact that 1 Samuel 7:2 appears to indicate a time lapse of only 20 years between Eli's death and David's 7th year, there are other considerations to be made.
In response to my email question on the subject,Dr. Claude Mariottini, Professor of Old Testament, Northern Baptist Seminary Lombard, IL 60148 wrote:
The issue of the length of time the Ark remained in Kiriath-jearim is debatable. The problem is how the twenty-years should be understood. The "twenty years" is present in the Hebrew Text and in the Septuagint, so it is original to the biblical text.
There are different ways to understand the "twenty years" in the text. Some scholars say that the number is a Deuteronomistic addition to his source. This statement is hard to prove. Others say that the "twenty years" refer to the time elapsed between the Ark's return by the Philistines to the events narrated in chapter 7. Others interpret the "twenty years" as the time the Ark spent in Kiriath-jearim before David conquered Jerusalem. This last interpretation was the one taken by the author of the quote in my article. Rereading 1 Samuel 13:1
My inquiry derived from the fact that:
1. The King's Calendar, which works independently, mathematically, and directly from the Scriptural chronological references [as artificial time periods and using the principle of Linear Causality ?Ref Fnts.] indicates that the total [artificial year] time period to elapse between Eli's death and David's 7th year is 70 years. Therefore the 20 years mentioned in 1 Samuel 7:20 must be considered incorrect.
2. Josephus records a 40 year time lapse for this same 20 year period.
In Antiquities Book 6:13:5, Josephus says of King Samuel: "Now he governed and presided over the people alone, after the death of Eli the high priest, twelve years, and eighteen years together with Saul the king."
In Antiquities 10:8:4 he says: Saul, who was their first king, retained the government twenty years, though he was not of the same tribe with the rest.[20-18=2 years on his own.]
In Antiquities 6:14:9 he says: Now Saul, when he had reigned eighteen years while Samuel was alive, and after his death two[and twenty], ended his life in this manner.
The total combined period for Samuel and Saul is equal to 32 years.[12+18+2=32]
Add to these 32 years, the final year of Eli when the Ark was captured, plus the 7 years until David's 7th year when he collected the Ark from Kiriath Jearim, and the total is 40 years.
Despite his 'negative' reputation as a chronologist, Josephus, irrespective of his carelessness, did work from 'source documents', even if he did not always understand them. He was careless, obviously disorganised, and little understood what was before him, probably because he had access to a 'third party's' chronological documents. The overall King's Calendar impression of Josephus's references however, is that his material was 'legitimate', and that his errors can be understood. [Chapter 20 King's Calendar.]
Josephus' material, and the King's Calendar inherently insist that our current version of 1 Samuel 7:2, is not correct. For the King's Calendar, the demonstration of the error relates to the chronology for the Monarchal period of Israel's History, as well as for the Period of the Judges, and finds its' focus, in the chronology for King Saul.[Reserved for Article 6 in this series].
ii) 'Original' to Biblical Texts.
Dr. Mariottini (quoted above) wrote that the "twenty years" is present in the Hebrew Text and in the Septuagint, so it is original to the biblical text.
This expression does not mean that the 20 years is the original figure (at the time the details were recorded), but that as it appears in all the oldest manuscripts, we can be assured that it is the figure that was intended for us to read there. This however, does not mean, that at sometime prior to the compiling of the Septuagint (3rd Century BCE), that a different [or even no] figure had not already been either inserted or changed.
If you read the English translation of 1 Samuel 7:2, it does not read smoothly, but rather appears to contain an insertion. Compare the following renditions.
Original Version : And it came to pass, from the day that the ark abode in Kiriath-jearim, that the time was long; for it was twenty years; and all the house of Israel yearned after the LORD.
Suggested Version : And it came to pass, from the day that the ark abode in Kiriath-jearim, that ........ all the house of Israel yearned after the LORD.
If the original version has received an insertion, it is because someone was trying to calculate the time frame in the absence of other corroborating chronological records. One cannot however just alter the record merely to suit one's own chronological purpose [a common habit among modern Bible academics].
Nevertheless, 1 Samuel 6:1 contradicts this figure by saying that the Philistines only had the Ark for 7 months, and that because of the resultant plagues, they returned the Ark, sending it off on a cart to Beth-Shemesh. In the context of that Chapter however, it is apparent that despite this misadventure on the part of the Philistines, they did not desist from harassing Israel.
What I suggest, is either that the 7 months of 1 Samuel 6:2 was originally "70 years", and/or that the 20 years listed in 1 Samuel 7:2, is an insertion based on an attempt to chronologise the period from Samuel to David's 7th year, and should read 70 years.
iii) 7 months or 70 years : Changing the Biblical Details
As mentioned earlier, the King's Calendar is an independent mathematical calculation, working directly from and applying, Scriptural chronological references, as artificial time periods, and operates upon the principle of Linear Causality. Years prior to looking at the Seder Olam Rabbah, and before considering these Biblical verses, the King's Calendar determined that Samuel Judged Israel for an independent period of 32 years and that Saul was king of Israel for 30 independent years. Add to these the 7 years of David and the last year of Eli, and the total is 70 years for the Ark to be in Kiriath Jearim.
From this perspective then, and checking the balance of the Biblical Data, a new picture can plausibly be drawn.
1 Samuel Chapter 6:1 makes it quite clear that the Philistines returned the Ark voluntarily in 7 months.( :1 And the ark of the LORD was in the country of the Philistines seven months)
1 Samuel 6:2 speaking about the day it was returned says: And the Philistines called for the priests and the diviners, saying: 'What shall we do with the ark of the LORD? declare unto us wherewith we shall send it to its place. :11 And they put the ark of the LORD upon the cart,..:13 And they of Beth-shemesh were reaping their wheat harvest in the valley; and they lifted up their eyes, and saw the ark, and rejoiced to see it...:15 And the Levites took down the ark of the LORD....:16 And when the five lords of the Philistines had seen it, they returned to Ekron the same day
1 Samuel 6:21 And they sent messengers to the inhabitants of Kiriath-jearim, saying: 'The Philistines have brought back the ark of the LORD; come ye down, and fetch it up to you.'
1 Samuel 7:1 And the men of Kiriath-jearim came, and fetched up the ark of the LORD, and brought it into the house of Abinadab in the hill, and sanctified Eleazar his son to keep the ark of the LORD
1 Chronicles 13:3-7 and [King David speaking says] let us bring back the ark of our God to us; for we sought not unto it in the days of Saul. And all the assembly said that they would do so; for the thing was right in the eyes of all the people. So David assembled all Israel together, from Shihor the brook of Egypt even unto the entrance of Hamath, to bring the ark of God from Kiriath-jearim. And David went up, and all Israel, to Baalah, that is, to Kiriath-jearim, which belonged to Judah, to bring up from thence the ark of God, the LORD that sitteth upon the cherubim, whereon is called the Name. And they set the ark of God upon a new cart, and brought it out of the house of Abinadab; and Uzza and Ahio drove the cart.
Despite the way the story is contextually situated following 2 Samuel Chapter 5 & 6 in relation to battles with the Philistines, these verses can lead one to consider that in fact the Ark was returned after 70 years, and this, probably because David, who used to work for the Five Lords of the Philistines, was now King of Israel.
From the Biblical and other perspectives provided in the data above, it is clearly evident that the chronologies or the narratives in 1 Samuel Chapters 6 & 7 are corrupt.
Although what has been presented here is not 'proof' of the assertions made in relation to the Ark's 70 year period at Kiriath Jearim, it does offer an alternative to the erroneous presentation currently contained in these chapters.
If one can see that 1 Samuel 6:1 ought to read And the ark of the LORD was in the country of the Philistines 70 years (seven months), then it stands to reason that 1 Samuel 7:2 would originally have read: "And it came to pass, from the day that the ark abode in Kiriath-jearim, that all the house of Israel yearned after the LORD"
As this article is already up to 2500 words, and the next section will be equally as long, the 'indepth chronological examination' of the Biblical chronologies for this period, in the light of Seder Olam Rabbah, Josephus and the King's Calendar, for Samuel, Saul, David and Solomon, will appear in the Next article.
As we continue to look at the chronological material for this time period, it will be possible to see the underlying justification for the suggested changes to the Book of Samuel.
The King's Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work. See:Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History : 936 to 586 BCE:
Because it is a mathematical system, the King's Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It's like a 'domino effect'. Chronological references cannot be 'forced' to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or 'compressed' as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.
If any King's Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King's Calendar successfully defends its' position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King's Calendar is 'proven' wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.
Because of this, the King's Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel's history is unique, in that its' methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its' chronological predictions are able to be 'proved' or 'disproved'.
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix Five to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]
Copyright 2013 is held by the nominated authors on this article page.
The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam
About the KingsCalendar Publisher
R.P.BenDedek is the owner and Editor of KingsCalendar.com which was originally set up to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran'.
Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
R.P. BenDedek also writes social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both at KingsCalendar, and as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News in Maine USA.
He currently (2013) teaches Conversational English in SuZhou City Jiangsu Province in China.
Newsletter No. 26 Did Pharaoh Drown in the Red Sea? Newsletter No.25 Babylonian King Nebuchadrezzar Newsletter Nos.21-24 Laws of Evidence Newsletter No.20 Is the Bible God Inspired or just the History of Israel? Newsletter No.19 Josephus and the date of the Exodus Newsletter No.18 The Septuagint, The Masorete and the Exodus Newsletter No.17 The Significance of Ahab's death Newsletter No.16 The Life and Death of King Ahab of Israel Newsletter No.15 The Burning of Solomon's Temple Newsletter No.14 The Chronologies of Josephus Newsletter No.13 A Biblical Contradiction which is NOT! Newsletter No.12 Josiah to the Destruction of Jerusalem Newsletter No.11 Josiah to Zedekiah Newsletter No.10 Uzziah to Josiah: Judah 7th Century BCE Newsletter No.9 Manasseh's Captivity Newsletter No.8 Josephus : 1st Century Jewish Historian Newsletter No.7 The Prophet Jeremiah Newsletter No.6 Exodus Newsletter No.5 Ancient Egypt. The Hyksos, 18th Dynasty, Rameses II Newsletter No.4 Academic Disagreements : Opinions and Assumptions Newsletter No.3 Academic Opinion Versus Fact Newsletter No.2 Academic Opinion - Facts and Misdirection Newsletter No.1 Religious Compartmentalisation - Psychological Dysfunction