The Kings of Israel & Judah: Bible Calendars: Bible Dates: History of Israel.Hoshea reigned 9 solar years. His 7th solar year was 724 BCE when Samaria was besieged by the Assyrians. This was Ahaz' 4th SOLAR year not Hezekiah's. In Hoshea's 9th solar year - 722 BCE - Samaria went into exile. This was Ahaz 7th SOLAR year - not Hezekiah's.
Jehu - usurper - : Reigned 28 artificial or 26 solar years : 2 Kings 10:36
First artificial Regnal year commenced 20th Feb 848 BCE
First True Regnal Year commenced Nisan of 848 BCE
He Died in artificial year ending 24th December 823 BCE
Jehu killed the kings of Israel and Judah at the same time.
Joash of Judah commenced in the 7th year of Jehu
In Joash's 23rd year, Jehu's son commences to reign
10. Jehoahaz - King of Israel
Jehoahaz son of Jehu : Reigned 17 artificial or 16 solar years : 2 Kings 13:1
First artificial Regnal year commenced 25th December 823 BCE
First True Regnal Year Nisan of 822 BCE
He died artificial year ending 3rd Sept 807 BCE.
Jehoahaz commences in the 23rd artificial year of Joash of Judah. 21st Solar Year
In Joash of Judah's 37th Solar year (16 years later) Jehoahaz' son Jehoash commences to co-rule.(See Solar Chart)
11. Jehoash - King of Israel
Jehoash of Israel son of Jehoahaz : Reigned 16 artificial or 14 solar years : 2 Kings 13:10
First Artificial Regnal year commenced 4th September 807 BVE
First True Regnal Year Nisan of 806 BCE
He Died in the artificial year ending 9th July 793 BCE
Josephus records that Jehoash of Israel commenced in the 37th year of Joash of Judah.
In Solar year reckoning this is correct. In Artificial years it was Joash's 40th year.
12. Jeroboam II - King of Israel
Jeroboam II son of Jehoash of Israel : Reigns 41 or 37 solar years : 2 Kings 14:23
Jeroboam commenced in the 15th artificial year of Amaziah
Amaziah lives 15 years more than Jeroboam's father
Therefore Jeroboam's last year is Uzziah's 38th year.
Uzziah's 38th year, Jeroboam's son commences.
Therefore His first regnal year is his father's last regnal year
13. Zechariah - King of Israel
Zechariah son of Jeroboam II commences is Uzziah's 38th year
He is soon murdered.
The Synchronisation with the 38th of Uzziah is an extrapolation from the Biblical Data which is provided in an artificial measurement.
Jeroboam's last year and Zechariah's Ascension year are in fact Uzziah's 24th Independent Solar Year Reign.
Note: The Solar Chart shows this year as the 39th of Uzziah. That is because that particular section deals with a different issue - that of determining if the 52 years of Uzziah are artificial or Solar.
The data presented for this period on the Solar Chart demonstrates that if the 52 years of Uzziah are meant to be taken as Solar years, then the synchronizations with the reigns from Zechariah to Pekah are incorrect.
14. Shallum - King of Israel
Shallum - usurper - replaces Zechariah in Uzziah's 39th year
Shallum is also killed.
15. Menehem - King of Israel
Menehem - usurper - replaces Shallum in Uzziah's 39th year.
Menehem reigns 10 years 2 Kings 15:15,17
Menehem's son Pekahiah commences in Uzziah's 50th year
In Uzziah's 52nd year Pekah kills Pekahiah.
Therefore Uzziah's 39th year is Menehem's Ascension year
Menehem's First artificial regnal year commenced 17th April 754 BCE
This is roughly Nisan and therefore Menehem's 1st True Regnal Year
Menehem died in the artificial year ending 9th July 745 BCE
Pekahiah son of Menehem - Reigned 2 years - commences Uzziah's 50th year
First Artificial Regnal year commenced 10th July 745 BCE
First True Regnal Year Nisan of 744 BCE
Died artificial year ending 13th May 743 BCE - Slain by Pekah.
17. Pekah - King of Israel
Pekah - usurper. 1 Kings 15:27 says he reigned for 20 years.
The King's Calendar demonstrates 14 artificial years.
Some academics suggest as little as 5 years.
First artificial Regnal year commenced 14th May 743 BCE
Whilst his First True Regnal year might have been Nisan of 743 BCE, in the Solar Chart his First True Regnal Year is at Nisan of 742 BCE - to provide a 12 Solar year reign and to allow Pekahiah to reign 2 full True Regnal years.
Pekah Died during the artificial year ending 16th April 730 BCE
With Rezin of Damascus he fought the Syro-Ephraimitic war 734 BCE – 732BCE
He Fought against Jotham of Judah not Ahaz of Judah
18. Hoshea - King of Israel
Hoshea of Israel - Reigned 9 (solar or artificial) years.
The precise placement of his reign depends on when Pekah actually died
And it depends on precisely when Hoshea commenced to reign.
It also depends upon how the Babylonian chronicles are to be interpreted.
The King's Calendar offers two ways to interpret the data.
The presentation in Appendix 5 and in the Solar Chart, is as follows:
Hoshea Ascended the Throne in 731 BCE
First Artificial Regnal year commenced 17th April 730 BCE
His First True Regnal Year commenced Nisan of 730 BCE
He commenced in the 12th True Regnal year of Jotham (Not Ahaz)
This the Jotham's 20th year since becoming Govenor
Hoshea reigned 9 solar years
His 7th solar year was 724 BCE when Samaria was besieged by the Assyrians
This was Ahaz' 4th SOLAR year not Hezekiah's
In Hoshea's 9th solar year - 722 BCE - Samaria went into exile.
Archaeologist in Israel says she's found king's palace Sunday, December 04, 2005 By Scott Wilson, The Washington Post
Israeli archaeologist Eilat Mazar believes the evidence she has uncovered during months of excavation and biblical comparison points to an extraordinary discovery...She believes she has found the palace of King David....Some archaeologists believe Jerusalem was no more than a tiny hilltop village when it served as David's capital. The discovery of a palace or other large public building from David's time would strengthen the opposing view that he and his son, Solomon, presided over a civilization grander than the collection of rural clans some historians say made up the Jewish kingdom.
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix Five to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]
General formula for Biblical Data conversion:
The formula for constructing the artificial calendar was:
'X' times 364 equals 'Y' days
'Y' days divided by 336 equals 'Z' artificial years.
'X' = any given number of 'real/solar' years
364 = perceived days in the sectarian calendar
'Y' = number of days calculated
336 = number of days in an artificial year
'Z' = artificial years = 1.083'X' and represents the original number of the converted years plus 8%.
To reverse the process by hand:
'Z' years times 336 equals 'Y' divided by 364 equals the Number of 'X' years converted.
To see how effective this method is, SEE:Appendix 5:Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE:
The Principle of Linear Causality
The King's Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work. To see how effective this method is, SEE:Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE
Because it is a mathematical system, the King's Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It's like a 'domino effect'. Chronological references cannot be 'forced' to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or 'compressed' as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.
If any King's Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King's Calendar successfully defends its' position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King's Calendar is 'proven' wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.
Because of this, the King's Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel's history is unique, in that its' methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its' chronological predictions are able to be 'proved' or 'disproved'.
Copyright 2013 is held by the nominated authors on this article page.
About the KingsCalendar Publisher
R.P.BenDedek is the owner and Editor of KingsCalendar.com which was originally set up to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran'.
Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
R.P. BenDedek writes social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both at KingsCalendar, and as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News in Maine USA.He has been teaching in China since 2003 and currently (2013) is working in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province.