Bible Dates: Bible Chronology: Bible Calendars: Bible Errors and Contradictions: Kings of Israel and Judah: Is the Bible Correct?The purpose here is to provide graphic demonstration of the 'confused' state of events that are listed in the Bible for this period of time. Academics usually explain everything away by saying that everybody was co-reigning with everybody else and so one cannot be sure as to what any given chronological reference refers or they insist that the redactors who put all the material together were idiots who didn't know anything much at all about chronology. If Pekah died in 732 BCE, in the 20 th year of Jotham, then Jotham died in 732 BCE.
Problematical Biblical Chronology : Uzziah to Hezekiah
The purpose here is to provide graphic demonstration of the 'confused' state of events that are listed in the Bible for this period of time.
Academics usually explain everything away by saying one of two things.
a) Everybody was co-reigning with each other and so one cannot be sure as to what any given chronological reference refers.
b)The redactors who put all the material together were idiots who didn't know anything much at all about chronology.
It is the King's Calendar Contention, that for this time period, there are in fact only 3 errors in the Historical Biblical narratives. Before we discuss that however, I want to introduce some points to you. These are points that come directly from the Bible and our knowledge of Historical events. Beneath these points is a chronological Solar Year time line chart, depicting the scenario that the Bible describes.
(For those who might be tempted to tell me that perhaps Uzziah's 52 year reign occurred further back in time, I can only say that the King's Calendar synchronism between Pekah and Uzziah, according to current perspectives, starts Pekah's reign too far back, and maintains that it should be brought down somewhat.)
Biblical Chronology : Uzziah to Hezekiah
Point 'A' Pekah & Hoshea
1. Pekah of Israel commenced in the 52nd year of King Uzziah 2 Kings 15:25,27
Pekah is supposed to reign 20 years. No one agrees with this - even the King's Calendar.
From Historical records we know that Pekah was gone from Israel (deposed or killed) c. 732 BCE.
2. Pekah was succeeded by Hoshea who reigned 9 years
Depending on how you read the Babylonian records, either Hoshea was besieged from his 7th to 9th years, with his 9th year being 722 BCE when Samaria fell
- OR -
He was captured in his 9th year and then the City of Samaria was besieged until 722 BCE.
The choices are that he reigned from 732 BCE until 724 BCE or from 730 BCE to 722 BCE.
3. Because of Hoshea's reign, we know that Pekah reigned only 12 or 14 years.
These two scenarios are depicted in the chart below from the 6th to 8th columns on the right
Point 'B' - Jotham
1. Jotham reigned 16 years commencing in the 2nd year of Pekah 2 Kings 15:32,33
This is visible in the 4th column
He therefore died in the 18th of Pekah.
2. According to 2 Kings 15:30, Hoshea killed Pekah in the 20th year of Jotham.
From this we must assume that the 20 years are composed of a 16 year reign and 4 years as governor for his father King Uzziah.(2 Chronicles 26:21)
3. Pekah was therefore killed in the final year of Jotham,
This is the year 727 BCE.
This conflicts with current perception of History and conflicts with 2 Kings 15:32,33 as in Point 1 above.
NB. The King's Calendar will insist that 2 Kings 15:30 is correct. This will be explained later.
4. 2 King's 16:1 says that Ahaz (son of Jotham) commenced in the 17th year of Pekah - which is unacceptable historically
5. If Pekah died in 732 BCE, in the 20 th year of Jotham, then Jotham died in 732 BCE.
Point 'C' Hoshea
1. 2 Kings 17:1 states that Hoshea commenced in the 12th year of Ahaz.
This means that
Jotham's 18th or 20th years
Pekah's 20th year
Hoshea's 1st year
Ahaz' 12th year
All fall at the same time.
Discounting Pekah, the usual explanation is to say that Ahaz and Jotham were co-ruling.
It is a convenient explanation that ultimately makes no sense.
2. Hoshea's 1st year and Ahaz' 12th year must fall on or about 732 BCE.
3. Hezekiah's 4th and 6th years must coincide with the 7th and 9th of Hoshea 2Kings 18:9,10
When you do the math, there can be no synchronisation of these two reigns unless Hezekiah was co-reigning with his father, for
The 1st year of Hezekiah is the 7th of Hoshea;
the 3rd year of Hezekiah is the 9th year of Hoshea (and only from one perspective of when Hoshea commenced to reign)
The lay person readily accepts the 'professional' opinion. HOWEVER...
Point 'D' - Hezekiah
1. Hezekiah's 14th year is stated to be 701 BCE when Sennacherib invaded Judea and besieged Jerusalem. 2 Kings 18:9 19:36.
2. If Hezekiah's 14th year is 701 BCE, then he commenced to reign in 714 BCE.
3. If Hezekiah's SOLE REIGN commenced in 714 BCE, and he had been reigning with Ahaz, then Ahaz reigned until 715 BCE, giving him around a 26 year reign (732 715).
4. If Hezekiah was co-reigning at the time of the fall of Samaria in 722 BCE and it was his 7th year and Hoshea's 9th year, then he co-reigned at least 15 years, from 729 BCE). If Hezekiah's 7th year and Hoshea's 9th year fell in 724 BCE, then Hezekiah co-reigned 17 years.
5. Hezekiah is said to commence his reign in the 3rd year of Hoshea, which, depending on which starting date we use for Hoshea, means he commenced in 730 BCE or 728 BCE, within 2 years of Jotham's (his alleged Grandfather) death.
How the Bible Depicts the events
What does the King's Calendar Propose?
In Essence, the King's Calendar proposes that there are only 3 real errors in the Biblical Narratives.
No. 1. Pekah did not Reign 20 years.
Since it can be seen that he reigned 12 years, the probability is that the 20 year reference is a transcription error for twelve years.
No. 2. The Names of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah have been confused.
Jotham's regnal name was undoubtedly Jehoahaz.
Ahaz' name was undoubtedly Ahaziah,
Hezekiah's name was Hezekiah.
All three names can feasibly be confused in the Hebrew text. That which belonged to Jotham was ascribed to Ahaz; and that which belonged to Ahaz, was ascribed to Hezekiah.
No.3. The confusion over the names, resulted in an erroneous duplication of the chronology for Jotham, so that to Ahaz was given 16 artificial years instead of 15 artificial years (14 Solar Years).
1. Uzziah's 52nd year and Pekah's 1st year fell in 743 BCE
2. Jotham, who commenced his governorship in 749 BCE, succeeded his father Uzziah in 742 BCE
3. Jotham reigned 15 SOLAR years or 16 Artificial years until 728 BCE.
4. Pekah of Israel was replaced in 731 BCE by Hoshea in the 12th SOLAR year of Jotham (his 20th year since he took over the government of Uzziah)
5. In the 3rd year of Hoshea, Ahaz succeeded Jotham.
6. From the 4th to 6th years of Ahaz, Hoshea was under siege in Samaria. (7th - 9th years)
7. In the 16th artificial year of Ahaz' reign 715 BCE, Ahaz died.
8. Hezekiah commenced his first regnal year in 714 BCE.
9. Hezekiah's 14th Artificial year and 14th Solar year, both co-incided during the time of Sennacherib's invasion in 701 BCE.
Apart from changing the names of Jotham,Ahaz, and Hezekiah, the only Scripture reference which is actually wrong is 2 Kings 15:25,27, which contains a transcription error, reading 20 years instead of 12 years.
Definition: King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix Five to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]
General formula for Biblical Data conversion:
The formula for constructing the artificial calendar was:
'X' times 364 equals 'Y' days
'Y' days divided by 336 equals 'Z' artificial years.
'X' = any given number of 'real/solar' years
364 = perceived days in the sectarian calendar
'Y' = number of days calculated
336 = number of days in an artificial year
'Z' = artificial years = 1.083'X' and represents the original number of the converted years plus 8%.
To reverse the process by hand:
'Z' years times 336 equals 'Y' divided by 364 equals the Number of 'X' years converted.
To see how effective this method is, SEE:Appendix 5:Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE:
The Principle of Linear Causality
The King's Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work. To see how effective this method is, SEE:Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BCE
Because it is a mathematical system, the King's Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It's like a 'domino effect'. Chronological references cannot be 'forced' to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or 'compressed' as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.
If any King's Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King's Calendar successfully defends its' position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King's Calendar is 'proven' wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.
Because of this, the King's Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel's history is unique, in that its' methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its' chronological predictions are able to be 'proved' or 'disproved'.
Copyright 2013 is held by the nominated authors on this article page.
About the KingsCalendar Publisher
R.P.BenDedek is the owner and Editor of KingsCalendar.com which was originally set up to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran'.
Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
R.P. BenDedek writes social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both at KingsCalendar, and as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News in Maine USA.He has been teaching in China since 2003 and currently (2013) is working in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province.