If Pekah died in 732 BC, in the 20 th year of Jotham, then Jotham died in 732 BC. Academics usually explain everything away by saying that everybody was co-reigning with everybody else and so one cannot be sure as to what any given chronological reference refers or they insist that the redactors who put all the material together were idiots who didn't know anything much at all about chronology.
Problematical Biblical Chronology : Uzziah to Hezekiah
The purpose here is to provide graphic demonstration of the 'confused' state of events that are listed in the Bible for this period of time.
Academics usually explain everything away by saying one of two things.
a) Everybody was co-reigning with each other and so one cannot be sure as to what any given chronological reference refers.
b)The redactors who put all the material together were idiots who didn't know anything much at all about chronology.
It is the King's Calendar Contention, that for this time period, there are in fact only 3 errors in the Historical Biblical narratives. Before we discuss that however, I want to introduce some points to you. These are points that come directly from the Bible and our knowledge of Historical events. Beneath these points is a chronological Solar Year time line chart, depicting the scenario that the Bible describes.
(For those who might be tempted to tell me that perhaps Uzziah's 52 year reign occurred further back in time, I can only say that the King's Calendar synchronism between Pekah and Uzziah, according to current perspectives, starts Pekah's reign too far back, and maintains that it should be brought down somewhat.)
Biblical Chronology : Uzziah to Hezekiah
Point 'A' – Pekah & Hoshea
1. Pekah of Israel commenced in the 52nd year of King Uzziah 2 Kings 15:25,27
Pekah is supposed to reign 20 years. No one agrees with this - even the King's Calendar.
From Historical records we know that Pekah was gone from Israel (deposed or killed) c. 732 BC.
2. Pekah was succeeded by Hoshea who reigned 9 years
Depending on how you read the Babylonian records, either Hoshea was besieged from his 7th to 9th years, with his 9th year being 722 BC when Samaria fell
- OR -
He was captured in his 9th year and then the City of Samaria was besieged until 722 BC.
The choices are that he reigned from 732 BC until 724 BC or from 730 BC to 722 BC.
3. Because of Hoshea's reign, we know that Pekah reigned only 12 or 14 years.
These two scenarios are depicted in the chart below from the 6th to 8th columns on the right
Point 'B' - Jotham
1. Jotham reigned 16 years commencing in the 2nd year of Pekah 2 Kings 15:32,33
This is visible in columns 4 and 4a
He therefore died in the 18th of Pekah.
2. According to 2 Kings 15:30, Hoshea killed Pekah in the 20th year of Jotham.
From this we must assume that the 20 years are composed of a 16 year reign and 4 years as governor for his father King Uzziah.(2 Chronicles 26:21)
3. Pekah was therefore killed in the final year of Jotham,
This is the year 727 BC.
This conflicts with current perception of History and conflicts with 2 Kings 15:32,33 as in Point 1 above.
NB. The King's Calendar will insist that 2 Kings 15:30 is correct. This will be explained later.
4. 2 King's 16:1 says that Ahaz (son of Jotham) commenced in the 17th year of Pekah - which is unacceptable historically
5. If Pekah died in 732 BC, in the 20 th year of Jotham, then Jotham died in 732 BC.
Point 'C' – Hoshea
1. 2 Kings 17:1 states that Hoshea commenced in the 12th year of Ahaz.
This means that
Jotham's 18th or 20th years
Pekah's 20th year
Hoshea's 1st year
Ahaz' 12th year
All fall at the same time.
Discounting Pekah, the usual explanation is to say that Ahaz and Jotham were co-ruling.
It is a convenient explanation that ultimately makes no sense.
2. Hoshea's 1st year and Ahaz' 12th year must fall on or about 732 BC.
3. Hezekiah's 4th and 6th years must coincide with the 7th and 9th of Hoshea 2Kings 18:9,10
When you do the math, there can be no synchronisation of these two reigns unless Hezekiah was co-reigning with his father, for
The 1st year of Hezekiah is the 7th of Hoshea;
the 3rd year of Hezekiah is the 9th year of Hoshea (and only from one perspective of when Hoshea commenced to reign)
The lay person readily accepts the 'professional' opinion. HOWEVER...
Point 'D' - Hezekiah
1. Hezekiah's 14th year is stated to be 701 BC when Sennacherib invaded Judea and besieged Jerusalem. 2 Kings 18:9 – 19:36.
2. If Hezekiah's 14th year is 701 BC, then he commenced to reign in 714 BC.
3. If Hezekiah's SOLE REIGN commenced in 714 BC, and he had been reigning with Ahaz, then Ahaz reigned until 715 BC, giving him around a 26 year reign (732 – 715).
4. If Hezekiah was co-reigning at the time of the fall of Samaria in 722 BC and it was his 7th year and Hoshea's 9th year, then he co-reigned at least 15 years, from 729 BC). If Hezekiah's 7th year and Hoshea's 9th year fell in 724 BC, then Hezekiah co-reigned 17 years.
5. Hezekiah is said to commence his reign in the 3rd year of Hoshea, which, depending on which starting date we use for Hoshea, means he commenced in 730 BC or 728 BC, within 2 years of Jotham's (his alleged Grandfather) death.
How the Bible Depicts the events
(This time period has so much wrong with it. The redactorial synchronisms are actually wrong for Uzziah - Jotham - Ahaz and Hezekiah & Merodach Baladan. The Ashdod Campaign in 714-12 is also mixed with Sennacherib's campaign in 701 BC. This is not just a matter of my say so. The narratives confuse or fuse events and this is obvious from both historical records and the contradictions in the biblical narratives. This topic is explored further in This Article)
What does the King's Calendar Propose?
In Essence, the King's Calendar proposes that there are only 3 real errors in the Biblical Narratives.
No. 1. Pekah did not Reign 20 years.
Since it can be seen that he reigned 12 years, the probability is that the 20 year reference is a transcription error for twelve years.
No. 2. The Names of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah have been confused.
Jotham's regnal name was undoubtedly Jehoahaz.
Ahaz' name was undoubtedly Ahaziah,
Hezekiah's name was Hezekiah.
All three names can feasibly be confused in the Hebrew text. That which belonged to Jotham was ascribed to Ahaz; and that which belonged to Ahaz, was ascribed to Hezekiah.
No.3. The confusion over the names, resulted in an erroneous duplication of the chronology for Jotham, so that to Ahaz was given 16 artificial years instead of 15 artificial years (14 Solar Years).
1. Uzziah's 52nd year and Pekah's 1st year fell in 743 BC
2. Jotham, who commenced his governorship in 749 BC, succeeded his father Uzziah in 742 BC
3. Jotham reigned 15 SOLAR years or 16 Artificial years until 728 BC.
4. Pekah of Israel was replaced in 731 BC by Hoshea in the 12th SOLAR year of Jotham (his 20th year since he took over the government of Uzziah)
5. In the 3rd year of Hoshea, Ahaz succeeded Jotham.
6. From the 4th to 6th years of Ahaz, Hoshea was under siege in Samaria. (7th - 9th years)
7. In the 16th artificial year of Ahaz' reign 715 BC, Ahaz died.
8. Hezekiah commenced his first regnal year in 714 BC.
9. Hezekiah's 14th Artificial year and 14th Solar year, both co-incided during the time of Sennacherib's invasion in 701 BC.
Apart from changing the names of Jotham,Ahaz, and Hezekiah, the only Scripture reference which is actually wrong is 2 Kings 15:25,27, which contains a transcription error, reading 20 years instead of 12 years.
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Academic Articles on the New Website as at Jan 18, 2017
Since 2004 he has been writing academic articles, social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both here at KingsCalendar, and formerly as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News (Maine USA) where from 2009 to 2015 he was Stand-in Editor. He currently has a column at iPatriot.com and teaches English to Business English and Flight Attendant College Students in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province People's Republic of China.)
BenDedek originally created the site to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran.' Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah. Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
(The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam)
Definition: King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC (but continuing down to at least 104 BC), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix 5. to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]