Seder Olam Rabbah: First & Second Temples: Zerrubabel, Solomon, Missing Years, King Cyrus.The issue that this article tackles involves a period of 480 years, which, according to the Seder Olam Rabbah, extended between Solomon's Temple and Zerrubabel's Temple. The only way to calculate a 480 year period between Solomon's Temple and the Post Exilic Temple, is to calculate back from either 522 BCE (commencement) or 516 BCE (completion) of Zerrubabel's Temple. The results are excessive
Solomon's Temple & Zerrubabel : Seder Olam Rabbah.
The issue that this article tackles involves a period of 480 years, which, according to the Seder Olam Rabbah, extended between Solomon's Temple and Zerrubabel's Temple.
The chronological discussion undertaken in this file pertains to the King's Calendar reconstruction of Israelite History. If you are not familiar with the King's Calendar, then in order to understand the issues raised, you need to read: What is the King's Calendar?
Concise King's Calendar Premise:
The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran is a study of the chronologies of the Books of Kings and Chronicles in the Bible, as well as of Josephus and of the Damascus Document of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
It's Premise: That between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years being comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align.
Solomon's Temple, & Zerrubabel's Temple
Why does Seder Olam Rabbah say that there are 480 years
between Solomon's building of the Temple and
Zerrubabel's rebuilding of the temple?
In the article (...uscj.org.il/haftarah/terumah5765.html) Parshat Terumah - link no longer current (1 Kings 5:26-6:13) February 12, 2005 the following statement appears:
Abrabanel explained the reference to the redemption from Egypt from a citation from the famous book of rabbinic chronology - Seder Olam Rabbah (chapter 15). He asserts that the prophet wanted to make note of the chronological symmetry between the amount of time that the Sanctuary established in the desert exited (according to Seder Olam ?480 years) and the period of time from the beginning of Solomon's building of the Temple to the beginning of Zerubavel's building of the Second Temple (also 480 years). Abrabanel saw in this verse's manner of expressing time an opportunity to teach about divine providence and history. He felt that God expressed Himself in history by making events happen in symmetrical patterns of time.
This discussion involves itself with the question: 'why does 1 kings 6:1 chronologically connect the Exodus to the 4th year of Solomon when he commenced to build the temple, instead of connecting it to Creation. The point made is that the Seder Olam Rabbah wishes to present chronological symmetry, in that 480 years elapsed between the Exodus and the commencement of Solomon's Temple, and 480 years elapsed unto Zerrubabel's commencement of the Temple's restoration.
The issue in this article, is whether or not 480 years do elapse between the two temples.
How many years between the First and Second Temples?
The Parameters: Solomon's temple & Zerrubabel's temple - 480 years
Checking the parameters of the Seder Olam Rabbah chronology, against the King's Calendar Reconstruction of Israelite History, demonstrates that the claim that 480 years elapse between the two events is Valid,but not quite in the way it was intended.
King's Calendar Chronology for The Two Temples:
The King's Calendar Dates for Solomon are:
Line 419 ?973 BCE - 1st Year of Reign
Line 416 ?970 BCE ?Solomon's 4th year ?Temple commences.
Line 409 ?964 BCE ?Solomon's 11th year ?Temple completed.
Check this out in Appendix 12 (Josephus) on the precis page. It contains King's Calendar Line Nos (left column), artificial years, and all calendar years from 104 BCE to 1941 BCE. You can use this chart to check all mathematical calculations cited in this article.
Measuring 480 years from Solomon's Temple.
To measure 480 years from Solomon's Temple, we have to measure from both the commencement and completion years, and measure in both artificial and solar years.
Commencement of the Temple 970 BCE (less) 480 solar years = 490 BCE
Completion of the Temple 964 BCE (less) 480 solar years = 484 BCE
Neither of the resultant dates seems to relate to Zerrubabel's Temple building.
(The year 586 BCE on the King's Calendar is Line '00'. The following calculations must use Line '00' as an additional year.)
Commencement of Solomon's Temple 970 BCE (Line 416) Less 480 artificial years = Line 63 = 528 BCE
Completion of Solomon's Temple 964 BCE (Line 409) Less 480 artificial years = Line 70 = 522 BCE
Commencement of Zerrubabel's Temple: 522 BCE
522 BCE (when building of the Temple recommenced)
(= Line 70 on the King's Calendar)
is 480 artificial years after Solomon completed the first temple.
522 BCE = Line 70
Travel down to Line '00'
up to Line 409
= 70 + 1 + 409
= 964 BCE Solomon Completes the First Temple
Using non King's Calendar Figures.
Since only the King's Calendar can provide a mathematical justification for it's placement of King Solomon's reign, and the figures used above come from the King's Calendar, the only way to calculate a 480 year period between Solomon's Temple and the Post Exilic Temple, is to calculate back from either 522 BCE (commencement) or 516 BCE (completion) of Zerrubabel's Temple.
522 BCE + 480 solar years = 1002 BCE which is far too early by currently accepted standards for Solomon's Reign.
516 BCE + 480 solar years = 996 BCE, which is still too early.
The King's Calendar calculation seems to be the only one that makes a 480 year connection between the two events. The 480 years appear to transpire between the completion of Solomon's Temple, and the Commencement of Zerrubabel's Temple.
But using the King's Calendar Artificial Calendar is not the only way to calculate it.
Mixture of Artificial & Solar Years
A: - In Mixed years ?Artificial & Solar years
From Solomon's 4th year 970 BCE (Line 416)
to and including 586 BCE Line 00
there are 417 years Artificial Years.
From 585 BCE to 522 BCE
There are 63 Solar Years.
417 + 63 = 480 years.
This appears to be the most likely explanation of the 480 years mentioned in Seder Olam Rabbah.
B:- In Mixed years - Artificial & Solar
From 973 BCE - Solomon's 1st year(Line 419)
to the Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE Line 00
= 433.5 Biblical years transpire
(as listed in the Bible - but the Kingscalendar removes the excess overlapping reigns.)
480 less 433.5 = 46.5 years
586 BCE less 46.5 years
= 529 BCE - the Last year of King Cyrus.
But not the rebuilding of the Temple.
The figure '480 years' from these two perspectives, will be seen to be a mixture of Artificial and Solar Years.
A problem Arises
Despite the foregoing King's Calendar Artificial chronological presentations, the King's Calendar Chart (which synchronises the Biblical data for the Divided Kingdom Period), demonstrates that the biblical data includes 13.5 years overlapping years.
Therefore, the 480 years which were measured on the King's Calendar in the foregoing section, are recorded in the Biblical Narratives as 493.5 years. For those calculations to be correct, the excess 13.5 years would have to have been known to the writer of Seder Olam. This I doubt.
We must therefore recalculate the period of 480 years, using the unadjusted biblical data.
Using the Biblical Chronological References Consecutively: including the 13.5 years of overlapping reigns
Note: There are 393.5 years listed in the Biblical Narratives from Rehoboam to Zedekiah.
6 Projections: 3 using Artificial year & 3 using Solar years.
1. Some Relevance from Solomon's 1st year.
Calculating from Solomon's 1st year to 586 BCE Babylonian Exile (393.5 + 40 =) 433.5 years.
Deducting these from 480 years = 46.5 years left until Zerrubabel's Temple.
From 586 BCE deduct 46.5 Artificial years = 544 BCE
From 586 BCE deduct 46.5 Solar years = 539/440 BCE
There appears to be relevance to Cyrus the Great but no Relevance to Zerrubabel's Temple.
2. Some Relevance from Solomon's 4th year.
(Commencement of the Temple)
Calculating from Solomon's 4th year. (393.5 + 36 =) 429.5 years.
Deducting these from 480 years = 50.5 years
From 586 BCE deduct 50.5 Artificial Years = 539 BCE indicating Cyrus & Babylon.
From 586 BCE deduct 50.5 Solar Years = 535 BCE No Relevance
The 480 year period has relevance to the Fall of Babylon, but not to Zerrubabel's Temple.
3. Little Relevance from Solomon's 11th year
(Completion of the Temple)
Calculating from Solomon's 11th year (393.5 + 29 years = ) 422.5 years
Deducting these years from 480 years = 57.5 years.
From 586 BCE deduct 57.5 Artificial Years = 533/534 BCE No relevance
From 586 BCE deduct 57.5 Solar Years = 529/528 BCE Relevance in King Cyrus' Death.
Again no relevance to Zerrubabel.
The Original Version of this Section appeared to have some mathematical errors. Those errors were not actually mathematical errors, but were the result of failing to carefully explain how they were calculated.
If the Reb had at his disposal a correct figure, then that figure was either totally solar, totally artificial, or totally mixed. Any figure containing artificial years will have included the 13.5 years of overlapping reigns. We cannot know if the Reb understood that the Biblical chronology contained these overlapping years, but when we try to remove the Biblical portion from the 480 years quoted for this time period, we shorten the end result.
By this I mean that when the Reb states that there are 480 years between Solomon and Zerrubabel's Temple, we automatically deduct the 393.5 years that the Bible ascribes to the period Rehoboam to the Fall of Jerusalem, and then deduct the various years to Solomon's 1st, 4th, and 11th years. We then use the Balance of the figure to calculate from 586 BCE to Zerrubabel. For example:
The bible records 393.5 years Rehoboam to 586 BC. To this we might add 40 years to Solomon's 1st year. We arrive at 433.5 years which we then deduct from the 480 years of Seder olam, and arrive at a 46.5 year period from 586 BCE to Zerrubabel. We arrive at 539.5 BCE (Indicative of King Cyrus)
But in fact there are only 420 biblical/artificial years to be deducted from the 480 years of Seder Olam, leaving a balance of 60 years to be deducted from 586 BCE to arrive at 526 BCE.
The current Version was inserted in June 2011, and is much easier for readers to understand.
480 solar years do not elapse between Solomon's Reign (1st / 4th / 11th years) and Zerrubabel.
Only if the author of Seder Olam Rabbah knew that the Biblical Data contained an excessive 13.5 years (which I doubt), could 480 artificial years elapse between Solomon's Temple and Zerrubabel's Temple.
It is possible that the 480 year figure is a composite mix of solar and artificial years.
The STATED parameters within the Seder Olam Rabbah are incorrect,
Using the King's Calendar chart (which causes 13.5 years to disappear), one can see that between the Completion of Solomon's Temple and the Commencement of the 2nd Temple, 480 artificial years transpire.
Likewise, it can also be determined that 480 mixed years transpire between Solomon's 4th and both Cyrus' conquest of Babylon - or - 522 BCE to the Commencement of the 2nd Temple.
Likewise, it can also be determined that 480 mixed years transpire between Solomon's 11th year and Cyrus' conquest of Babylon.
Likewise, it can also be determined that 480 mixed years transpire between Solomon's 1st year and Cyrus' Conquest of Babylon.
I cannot at this time explain how the Seder Olam Rabbah figure was established, because as the King's Calendar artificial reconstruction removes the excess 13.5 years of overlapping data, one cannot be sure what the Reb was working from, whether it is calculated purely in artificial year or a mixture of artificial and solar years, and what it's intended parameters were. Nevertheless, the 480 year figure is quite significant.
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Since 2004 he has been writing academic articles, social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both here at KingsCalendar, and formerly as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News (Maine USA) where from 2009 to 2015 he was Stand-in Editor. He currently has a column at iPatriot.com and teaches English to Business English and Flight Attendant College Students in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province People's Republic of China.)
BenDedek originally created the site to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran.' Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah. Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
(The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam)
Definition: King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix 5. to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]
Petition to Dr. Jan Eliasson, President of the United Nations General Assembly
His Excellency Dr. Jan Eliasson President, General Assembly
Not since Adolf Hitler, has the head of a sovereign state used his position to threaten the Jewish people with genocide. Today, for the first time, Iranian President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad publicly denied the Holocaust by calling it a “myth” used by Europeans to create a Jewish state in the heart of the Islamic world.
While Germany and other governments have protested this outrage, it is up to the United Nations to take the lead in insuring that the Iranian regime’s genocidal hate has specific consequences. Dr. Jan Eliasson, as President of the United Nations General Assembly, we urge you to convene the 191 member states in order to censure Iran and to declare President Ahmadinejad persona non grata.