Between the end of King Uzziah's reign, and 701 BCE when Sennacherib invaded Judah during Hezekiah's 14 th year, the Biblical chronological synchronisms make no historical sense, and most scholars simply dispense with them.
Did King Hezekiah of Judah co-reign with his Father King Ahaz?
As you may have read in your browsings at Wikipedia, there are many problems associated with the reign of Hezekiah King of Judah, the most obvious of which is the chronology of events.
Between the end of King Uzziah's reign, and 701 BCE when Sennacherib invaded Judah during Hezekiah's 14 th year, the Biblical chronological synchronisms make no historical sense, and most scholars simply dispense with them. The King's Calendar however sees the chronology as correct, and that the real problem is that the redactors confused the identities of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah.
The King's Calendar is a mathematical computer generated synchronous chronology of all the details contained in the Biblical Books of King's and Chronicles, and represents every 'year' listed in the Bible, as a period of 336 days. From that perspective, the Bible chronological data and synchronisms are reliable. Refer to:What is the King's Calendar?
In this article, we will briefly look at several issues that are pertinent to any examination of the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah. They include:
Hezekiah's 14th year 701 BCE
The Fall of Damascus 732 BCE
The Fall of Samaria 722 BCE
Sargon's Ashdod Campaign 714 - 712 BCE
Sennacherib's Campaign 701 BCE
There are four problems associated with all modern day academic attempts to solve the problem of Hezekiah's reign. They are:
That everyone has regarded the chronological data as if presented in the same manner as all other Ancient Near Eeastern data;
That primary reliance has always been upon what has already been accepted to be the correct history of the ancient near east;
That unwittingly, most have assumed that the biblical data is compiled from the records of the northern kingdom; (the Biblical data differs between the two) - and -
That for all their distrust of the biblical narratives, the 'facts' that academics question, tend usually to be chronologically related as opposed to 'narrative related.'
In order to solve the problem, we have to 'think outside the box.' The chronological data which is recorded from the Southern Kingdom perspective, and provided in an artificial manner, is actually very accurate. Unfortunately, the redactors either got confused when recording the narratives, or the original narratives were not precise. Finally, in order to make sense of everything, we have to forgo believing that academic opinion, is actually proven fact. It isn't! It's just the 'best guess'scenario.
There are three important academically accepted 'factual' historical determinants that we must keep in mind if we are to understand the Biblical Information.
1. The death/replacement of Pekah shortly after the Fall of Damascus in 732 BCE (Miller,J.M., Hayes,J.M. 1986 A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. USA. Westminster Press.p.332)
2. The Fall of Samaria in 722 BCE (Jagersma,H. 1983 A History of Israel in the Old Testament Period. Philadelphia. Fortress Press pp159-160)
3. The significance of the year 701 BCE, as Hezekiah's Fourteenth (14th) regnal year.
These events are pivotal to all chronologies, since historians insist that they and their given dates are unalterably fixed. The task then in any chronology is to marry these events.
732 BCE The Fall of Damascus
The date for the fall of Damascus is 'fixed' and cannot be changed. However, the actual details regarding the death of Pekah and the succession of his replacement Hoshea, are not known. In other words, there exists no details of exactly when these two events 'actually' occurred, other than they occurred in conjunction with the Fall of Damascus.
722 BCE The Fall of Samaria
This date is also fixed, and once again, there are no exact details regarding when precisely Hoshea was taken captive. The Biblical narratives are not as clear as they could have been and are open to interpretation. (Hoshea's reign can be terminated in 724 BCE and 722 BCE, depending on how you interpret the Data.)
701 BCE Hezekiah's 14th year - 'King's Calendar'
2 Kings 18:13 informs us that it was in the 14th year of King Hezekiah that he was besieged by Sennacherib of Assyria. This is known to have occurred in 701 BCE. One problem however is that the Bible also records that Hoshea's last year (722 BCE) was Hezekiah's 6th year. That would make 701 BCE his 27th year.
The discussion to follow comes from Chapter 11 of the King's Calendar, which is an artificial calendrical reconstruction of the History of Israel, specifically, of the Divided Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. It proceeds on the basis that between 450 BCE and 250 BCE most of the chronological material in the Biblical Historical books was converted into a very simple artificial form that was comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days (336 days per year) thereby creating 13 artificial years for every 12 solar years.
Based upon this reconstruction of history, the Chronology within the books of King's & Chronicles is almost all perfectly correct, although some identities of kings have been confused, and some multiple events have been fused.
The King's Calendar Premise:
1. The chronological records contained in the Bible are Artificial.
If you check the history books, you discover that there is no actual evidence at all as to when Pekah of Israel was killed, and when exactly Hoshea commenced. Different academics view the historical situation in different ways. The King's Calendar synchronisation of reigns determines that Hoshea commenced his reign toward the end of 731 BCE, and reigned 9 solar years, commencing his last year in Nisan (Mar/Apr) of 722 BCE.
The King's Calendar demonstrates that the biblical synchronisms are correct, but that the identification of 3 kings is erroneous.
The King's Calendar Perspective:
Hoshea ascends the throne in 731 BCE,
In Pekah's Fourteenth (14th) Artificial year,
And Jotham's Twelfth (12 th) 'Solar' year.
Hoshea's first regnal year is 730 BCE,
He reigns nine (9) solar years (not artificial years),
Commencing his last year in Nisan of 722 BCE, (through to Nisan of 721 BCE).
Kings Names change, but the chronology remains correct
722 BCE Samaria (Israel) Falls.
The King's Calendar Perspective:
2 Kings 18:9-10 informs us that there was a three year siege of Samaria
Commencing in Hoshea's 7th year,
Ending in his 9th year,
And synchronises these 'Solar' years with Hezekiah's 4th and 6th 'Solar' years.
The 'King's Calendar' however, demonstrates, that this event did not occur during Hezekiah's reign,
It occurred during Ahaz' reign, And the chronological synchronisation is correct, Although it is provided not in 'artificial' years, but in true solar years, for both kings.
The 4th and 6th solar years of Ahaz, correspond to the 7th and 9th solar years of Hoshea.
The Seige of Samaria commenced under Sargon II, in 724 BCE And was completed by Sennacherib in 722 BCE.
Appendix Five: demonstrates clearly that it was Ahaz not Hezekiah ruling in the time of Hoshea.
Hezekiah's 14th year 701 BCE
The King's Calendar Demonstrates that:
From the perspective of both Solar and Artificial years, 701 BCE is Hezekiah's 14th year.
Hezekiah's 14th Artificial year commences in November 702 BCE and runs until October 701 BCE
Hezekiah's 14th Solar year commences in Nisan of 701 BCE and runs until Nisan of 700 BCE
March/April of 701 BCE until October of 701 BCE is Hezekiah's 14th year in both Solar and Artificial Calendars.
Hezekiah's 1st year 714 BCE
Hezekiah commenced to reign subsequent to December of 715 BCE
His First Solar year commenced in Nisan of 714 BCE
His first artificial year commenced in November of 714 BCE
Hezekiah rebelled twice: 714 BCE & 701 BCE
Redactorial Confusion : Two Rebellions.
Hezekiah appears to have commenced his reign by rebelling against the Assyrian Overlord Sargon II. In 2 Kings Chapters 18 & 19 we see a composite account of two different rebellions.
The first is of Sargon's Ashdod Campaign 714 BCE - 712 BCE
The second is of Sennacherib's invasion in 701 BCE.
Sargon's Ashdod Campaign 714 BCE - 712 BCE : The Historical & Archaeological Data
1. The Ashdod Campaign lasted 3 years.
2. Judah was involved
3. Jerusalem was not besieged
4. Judah was not attacked
The prophecy of 2 Kings 19:29-34 states that:
1.The sign of the prophecy's fulfilment is the three year harvest promise: ** in the first year : eat what grows of itself, **in the second: what springs from the same, **in the third: sow, reap, and plant vineyards
2. The Assyrian King would not besiege Jerusalem nor shoot an arrow there
3. The King of Assyria would return home by the way in which he came.
This prophecy does not fit Sennacherib's 701 BCE campaign, but fits well with the Ashdod Campaign.
Sennacherib's 701 BCE campaign against Jerusalem - Archaeological/historical record.
1. Jerusalem was besieged
2. The Assyrians withdrew unexpectedly from the siege
3. Hezekiah subsequently paid tribute to Sennacherib.
4. The tribute was a 'usual' one, paid under normal circumstances.
5. Sennacherib retreated from Pelusium, because of mice and/or plague.
The Biblical Narrative 2 Kings 18 & 19, provides the following data:
1 Sennacherib came against the fortified cities of Judah in the 14th year of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:13)
2 The Rabshakeh came from Lachish with an army (2 Kings 18:17)
3 The Rabshakeh left for Libnah (2 Kings 19:8 )
4 Tirhakah of Ethiopia prepared to battle Sennacherib (2 Kings 19:9)
5 Some dramatic event caused Sennacherib to return home (2 Kings 19:35)
6 At some stage Hezekiah offered tribute to lift the siege (2 Kings 18:15)
The event as described here fits well with what is known of Sennacherib's activities at this time.
TWO DIFFERENT EVENTS:
It is feasible to conclude that the biblical narrative that purports to relate to Sennacherib's campaign of 701 BCE, is actually a composite of materials sourced in two campaigns, those of Sargon (714 BCE), and Sennacherib (701 BCE). If we accept this application, we can deconstruct some of the Biblical Narrative, to provide the following picture.
A) 2 Kings 19:20-34 : The Ashdod Campaign.
This is a 'prophetic word' given in relation to Sargon's Ashdod Campaign, relating that while the King of Assyria (not Sennacherib as mentioned) and his activities will be locally present for three (3) years, he will return home to Assyria, without invading Judah or besieging Jerusalem. (See also Isaiah 20:1 in relation to 'three years.') As such, it is historically accurate.
In as much as it is implicitly stated to refer to Sennacherib's invasion in 701 BCE, it is incorrect in reference to a siege, and it is not accurate in depicting Sennacherib's presence for three (3) years.
B) 2 Kings 18:13-16 : Summary of Sennacherib's 701 BCE Campaign.
i) Sennacherib's campaign commences.
ii) Hezekiah's request for the siege to be lifted
iii) Hezekiah's offer of tribute.
iv) Cost of tribute announced
v) The tribute is met.
This text provides us with a summary of events. As such it is not meant to be detailed. It is from verse Seventeen (2 Kings 18:17) that the details are provided, and reference to Egypt seems more appropriate to the scenario in 701 BCE, than the Ashdod Campaign. (But note also Isaiah 20:1)
C) 2 Kings 18:17 to 2 Kings 19:20 : Details of Sennacherib's Campaign
i) The Campaign commences
ii) The Rabshakeh sent to lay siege to Jerusalem
iii) The Rabshakeh announces terms
iv) The Terms are rejected
v) The Rabshakeh goes to Libnah
vi) Tirhakah prepares to battle Sennacherib (24)
vii) 2 Kings 19:35-36 - An unusual event causes Sennacherib to return home
From the perspective offered above, we see that 2 Kings 19:20-34 which textually appears within the context of Sennacherib's 701 BCE campaign, is more likely to have been derived from material relating to the Ashdod Campaign. This concept however ought not to 'confined' to specifically identifiable verses. If the material is drawn from two different accounts, then it is a forgone conclusion that the narrative between 2 Kings 18:17 and 2 Kings 19:20 which favours Sennacherib's invasion, will contain details relevant to the Ashdod campaign.
Who was Hezekiah's Father?
According to 2 Kings 15:33 Jotham was 25 years of age when he commenced to reign, and reigned 16 years. A total age of 41 years. 2 Kings 16:2 states that Ahaz was 20 years old when he commenced to reign, and reigned 16 years, (a total of 36 years), whilst Hezekiah was 25 years old when he commenced to reign, reigning 29 years to the age of 54 years. (2 Kings 18:2).
Since Hezekiah's first year commences in 714 BCE, backdating the personal data from this date, reveals he was born in 737/36 BCE during Jotham's 7th/8th regnal year, at which time, Ahaz was only Eleven/twelve years of age, and Jotham, thirty/thirty-one years of age.
The first thing to notice, is that Ahaz is not Hezekiah's father, but either Jotham's son or brother. The second thing to notice, is that for the Isaianic prophecy (Isaiah 7:10-16) to relate to Judean oppression at the hands of Rezin and Pekah, the prophecy was given to Jotham, not Ahaz, therefore Jotham is Hezekiah's father. The third thing to notice, is that it must be dated prior to 737 BCE.
Isaiah Chapter Seven seems to indicate that the prophecy concerning the child born of a young woman of marriageable age, was given very shortly after Pekah and Rezin teamed up. Verse one appears to be a summary introducing the story. Verse two links Isaiah's prophecy to the initial discovery of the conspiracy; "When the house of David was told, 'Syria is in league with Ephraim.'
Verse fourteen provides the promise of a child, 'A young woman shall conceive and bear a son and shall call his name Immanuel,' and verse sixteen indicates the time span before the downfall of the two kings, 'For before the child knows how to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land before whose two kings you are in dread will be deserted.'
Certainly by 732 BCE when Hezekiah was five years old, Damascus was in ruins, and by the age of sixteen years, so too was Samaria (722 BCE).
From the time that Uzziah fell ill and was replaced by Jotham, until Hezekiah's 14th year in 701 BCE, Biblical Chronology provides a completely confused chronological situation. The reason why no one has been able to sort it out is fourfold.
Firstly, the chronology is provided from within an Artificial Chronological framework.
I’m sure if you understand what Sociology is that you would find my statement rather strange for it leads to the question of what impact the King’s Calendar Research Result has on society and societal problems. But before we go look at that aspect, I want to talk about the personal aspect – MY aspect.
The demolition came as row between the church and government escalated over allegations the church refused to pay a £450 arbitrary road usage fee. Pastor Zhang Di was summoned for questioning last month and accused of assaulting police officers and attacking a village official. So when I read reports as in the link you sent and see the ACTUAL TRUTH in the middle of the article, I know that there is a lot more going on than is being reported.
Well obviously I am misrepresenting the meaning of the protester here. What they mean is that they support the right of one section of society to have and to hold their own culture and beliefs and they do this by protesting against another section of society’s right to have and to hold their own culture and beliefs.
As for a non-Muslim who posits that Islamic Terrorists do not truly practice Islam or truly believe in Allah, they are speaking either from complete ignorance, or subjective rationale relative to whatever it is that they have been told, or heard, or read. The word subjective relates a personal position relative to a particular situation. That does not of course mean that the subjective perception is ABSOLUTELY / ULTIMATELY incorrect. It may well be correct – the ultimately provable fact of the matter.
And so I began using the LIKE button. Ah such freedom! New sunrise photo – LIKE! Second day of school award for my granddaughter – LIKE! My 98 year old grandmother passed away yesterday – LIKE! But then the weirdest thing happened. Someone posted an article about two homosexuals who were given a public flogging in Indonesia. So I hit LIKE! Bloody hell! 23 threats of physical violence upon my person, and 17 announcements that I was about to be defriended. WTF?
So there you have it. The Patriarch Joseph was born in 1683BC. He was set over the Kingdom of Egypt in 1656BC. The Israelite Sojourn in Egypt commenced in 1648BC. Joseph died in 1582BC. The Hyksos were expelled in 1554BC. Moses was born in 1523BC.The Exodus commenced in 1449BC. The Israelites entered Caanan in 1412BC and 480 years later in the 4th year of Solomon the first temple commenced construction in 970 BC.
Since 2004 he has been writing academic articles, social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both here at KingsCalendar, and formerly as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News (Maine USA) where from 2009 to 2015 he was Stand-in Editor. He currently has a column at iPatriot.com and teaches English to Business English and Flight Attendant College Students in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province People's Republic of China.)
BenDedek originally created the site to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran.' Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah. Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
(The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam)
Definition: King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix 5. to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]