Academic Newsletters: Josephus, Archaeology: Antiquities: Omri: Jehu: Athaliah: Joash: Hyksos ExodusIn Antiquities Book 9:14:1  (Whiston, 1993, p.264) Josephus states that: .".the ten tribes of the Israelites were removed out of Judea nine hundred and forty-seven years after their forefathers were come out of the land of Egypt, and possessed themselves of the country.." The Date for this removal was 722 BCE, the Fall of Samaria under Hoshea of Israel. This figure of 947 years elapsing between the exodus and the fall of samaria in 722 BCE is written off by everyone as a complete fantasy, for it would require that the exodus occurred in 1669 BCE.
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(From Archaeology and the Bible Newsletter Series)
In the previous series, some attention has been given to Josephus' chronological references. We have for example noted the following:
1. That his reference in The Jewish War, Book One - Chapter III [Cornfeld 1982, p.25. Ch. III (1) 70.] that from Cyrus to Aristobulus 471 years elapsed. We noted that while he changed this figure to 481 years in Antiquities 13:11:1 [Cornfeld, 1982, p.25 ], the original figure is correct in artificial years for the stated parameters, and that the latter was correct in solar years but for a different set of paramenters.
2. We noted also that in The Jewish War Book 6:10:1 (440) [ Cornfeld, 1982, p.452 ], Josephus stated that between King David and Titus 1179 years elapsed. We saw 'how' he came by this figure, and noted that his errors were based in a failure to understand that most of the figures with which he was provided were 'artificial.'
3. We noted that according to Josephus, that from the Departure from Egypt to (586 BCE.) 1062.5 years elapse [Antiquities. Book 10:8:5 ] and noted that this reference leads us to 1554 BCE, and aligns with opinions in relation to the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt.
4. We have noted other things as well, from erroneous figures (and how they occurred) in relation to King David and the Babylonian Exile; Solar References that were erroneous because he left out the reign of Queen Alexandra; to information not Biblically recorded in relation to the manner of the death of King Jehoiakim.
In this newsletter I wish to provide some more examples and specifically intend to do three things:
1. Introduce you to another erroneous chronological reference provided by Josephus and demonstrate how the error occurred.
2. Introduce references which contradict Biblical Chronological records, though not all are incorrect.
3. I'm going to provide you with three charts that list the number of years that each king of Israel and Judah reigned. One chart will give you the Biblical (Artificial) figures. The second chart will show you how the figures change when references are synchronised, and the third chart shows you what was the true SOLAR YEAR length of Reign for each King.
."..the ten tribes of the Israelites were removed out of Judea nine hundred and forty-seven years after their forefathers were come out of the land of Egypt, and possessed themselves of the country......"
The Date for this removal was 722 BCE, the Fall of Samaria under Hoshea of Israel.
This figure of 947 years elapsing between the exodus and the fall of samaria in 722 BCE is written off by everyone as a complete fantasy, for it would require that the exodus occurred in 1669 BCE.
While the reference is wrong however, it is not fanciful.
As previously mentioned Antiquities 10:8:5 states that between the Exodus and the Burning of the Temple, 1062.5 years elapse, and as also previously mentioned, these years refer not to the Mosaic Exodus but to that of the Hyksos from Egypt, and pinpoint the year 1554 BCE, which falls in the middle of current academic speculation.
The Breakdown of that ARTIFICIAL 1062.5 year figure is:
589 (ARTIFICIAL) Years from EXODUS TO DAVID
473.5 (ARTIFICIAL) years from David to the Burning of the Temple.
Breaking Down the 1062.5 years Since the matter at hand is the fall of Samaria in 722 BCE, we can reconfigure the breakdown of the 1062.5 years and divided it into two different parts:
Exodus to 722 BCE
722 TO 586 BCE
When we do this however the result is 914.5 years from Exodus to 722 and 148 years from 722 to 586 BCE.
This is at variance with Josephus' 947 years from Exodus to 722 BCE, and would require that we reduce the 148 years from 722 to 586 BCE., to 115.5 years. There is a variation of 32.5 years.
As has previously been stated, it is usually possible to deconstruct Josephus' chronologies.
In this case, Josephus' intention appears to have been to subtract the time difference between the Fall of Samaria (722 BCE) and (586 BCE) the Fall of Jerusalem (136 Solar Years) from 1062.5 years, to arrive at a balance of years that he presumed would apply to the period between Exodus and the fall of Samaria.
This ought to have resulted in the following equation :
1062.5 less 136 = 926 years.
Remembering that Josephus was unaware of the artificial construct, any years he personally calculates will be in solar years.
What he appears to have done is subtract the time difference between 701 BCE, when Sennacherib invaded Hezekiah in Judah, and the Exile in 586 BCE., or 115 Solar years.
From his original source quoting a time span of 1062.5 years between the Exodus and the Babylonian Exile, and which he believed to be recorded in True Solar yeears, Josephus erroneously deducted 115 solar years (701 - 586 BCE), instead of 136 years (722 - 586 BCE), resulting in a 947 year calculation for the period 'Exodus to Fall of Samaria,' instead of 914.5 years.
These 914.5 artificial years then appear to relate not to the Mosaic Exodus, but to the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt during the 16th Century BCE. Refer to Josephus ChartAppendix 12 Precis Page.
2. Contradictions to the Biblical Record.
Within Josephus' chronological references, there are a few references to the lengths of the reigns of certain kings during the Divided Kingdom period that do not match the information provided in the Biblical records. I would like to draw your attention to them for they are not all wrong.
THE REIGN OF OMRI:
1 Kings 16:23 states that "In the thirty and first year of Asa king of Judah began Omri to reign over Israel, and reigned twelve years; six years reigned he in Tirzah" This Scripture appears to state that he commenced his 12 years in Asa's 31st year, but a perusal of the other related references indicates that it was in Asa's 31st year that he commenced his Six (6) year sole reign.
HOWEVER Josephus in Antiquities 8:12:5 states that Omri reigned 6 years in Tirzah commencing in the 30th year of king Asa of Judah. In Appendix Five one can see that both of these references are correct.
From Josephus perspective, Omri commenced his six years in Tirzah in the 30th SOLAR YEAR OF ASA'S REIGN, whilst 1 kings 16:23 indicates that Omri ascended to the throne (of the one Nation) in the 31st artificial year.
THE REIGN OF ATHALIAH
According to Josephus 9:7:1 Athaliah reigned 5 years. Within Appendix Five it appears to be correct, but it is not. Athaliah's 6th Artificial year commenced in October 844, and her 6th Solar Regnal year ought to have commenced in Nisan of 843 BCE. Had it not, then Joash would claim 843 BCE as his First Solar Regnal Year. The Synchronisms do not appear to support this. So we can only assume that while technically Josephus was incorrect, we might assume that she died very shortly after the New Year (Nisan) so as to not in any practical sense, be considered to have reigned her 6th year.
THE REIGN OF JEHU
2 Kings 10:36 states that Jehu reigned 28 years. Josephus in Antiquities 9:8:1 says it was for 27 years. Either we have an error in transcription in relation to the artificial calendar, or an error in Solar year reckoning, for Jehu reigned 25 solar years.
THE REIGN OF JEHOAHAZ OF ISRAEL:
According to Antiquities 9:8:5 Jehoahaz son of Jehu of Israel, reigned for 17 years commencing in the 20th year of Jehoash of Judah. The Bible however states that he reigned for 17 years commencing in the 23rd year of Jehoash of Judah - 2 Kings 13:1. Both of these references are correct, for in the one it refers to artificial reckoning and in the other to the solar year reckoning.
THE REIGNS OF JEHOASH OF JUDAH AND JEHOASH OF ISRAEL
According to Josephus Antiquities 9:8:6 and 2 Kings 13:10 Jehoash of Israel commenced to reign in the 37th year of Jehoash of Judah. From these we can assume that Jehoash of Israel commenced during his father's reign. However, it can also be demonstrated that the reference has a solar year application. Jehoash of Israel's first REgnal/SOLAR year commences in Nisan of 806 BCE which is the 37th REGNAL/SOLAR year of Amaziah. These references can be seen as both artificial and solar year references.
THE REIGN OF JEROBOAM II
In Antiquities 9:10:1 Josephus says that in 15th year of Amaziah, Jeroboam commenced to reign for 40 years - not the 41 Years of 2 Kings 14:23. In Appendix Five you can see that in all, Jeroboam reigned only 37 Solar Years, therefore Josephus reference cannot be to Solar Years. Its' variation from Scripture can be seen as a calculation commencing one year later than the presentation in Appendix five, based on the 41 years of the Biblical record. The Biblical record actually requires his to share both his first and last years. Josephus has not included both of these years.
THE REIGN OF UZZIAH
In Antiquities 9:10:3 Josephus writes: 'After the same manner did Uzziah, the son of Amaziah, begin to reign over the two tribes in Jerusalem, in the fourteenth year of the reign of Jeroboam.' THIS IS CORRECT IN SOLAR YEAR SYNCHRONISM.
3. The Three Charts of the Reigns of the Kings of Israel and Judah.
The original premise of research in 'The King's Calendar,' was that contradictions are only apparent, but not real. This premise facilitated in the discovery of the reality behind apparent contradictions. As we have seen in section two, some contradictions are NOT TRULY CONTRADICTORY, they are just references based within a different chronological approach. We have previously noted this in reference to the apparently contradictory references to the Burning of the Temple and the release of Jehoiachin by Amel-Marduk.
In the following photograph you can see the reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah for the period of the divided kingdom. The reigns are presented from three perspectives. The first two columns on the left represent the original data quoted in the Scriptures. In the second set, we can see the adjustment that occurs when the reigns are synchronised according to Scripture. In the third set, we see the actual length of reigns in Solar years.
For those of you who may not have quite understood why Biblical History does not fit with regular history, these charts demonstrate how inflated the Biblical figures actually are. Next week we will continue the EXTRA FREE GLIMPSES theme, but still continue with 'erroneous' Scriptural chronological references. Till Then.....
Since 2004 he has been writing academic articles, social commentaries and photographic 'Stories from China' both here at KingsCalendar, and formerly as a contributing columnist at Magic City Morning Star News (Maine USA) where from 2009 to 2015 he was Stand-in Editor. He currently has a column at iPatriot.com and teaches English to Business English and Flight Attendant College Students in Suzhou City Jiangsu Province People's Republic of China.)
BenDedek originally created the site to publicize his research results into the Chronology of Ancient Israel. Those results were published under the title: 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran.' Whilst there have been many attempts to solve the chronological riddle of the Bible's synchronisms of reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah and their synchronism with other Ancient Near Eastern Nations, no other research is based on a simple mathematical formula which could, if it is incorrect, be disproved easily. To date, no one has been able to dismiss the mathematical results of this research.
Free to air Academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah. Check the Chapter Precis Page to see details of each chapter and to gain access to the Four Free to Air Chapters
(The Download book does not contain a section on Seder Olam)
Definition: King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix 5. to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]