The King's Calendar' is a computer generated mathematical synchronous chronological presentation of the history of Ancient Israel, as principally recorded in the Biblical books of Kings and Chronicles, and sets forth Apologetics for and the results of R.P.BenDedek's discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Books of the Bible, Josephus,the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
Seder Olam Rabbah (No.1):
A Chronological Study:
First of a Series of Articles on Seder Olam Rabbah.
This particular article is just an introduction to Seder Olam Rabbah that combines two previous short articles and provides some material for those with little knowledge of what the Seder Olam Rabbah is.
This article serves as an introduction to the King's Calendar approach to Seder Olam Rabbah by re-editing the first two notational comments on the Seder Olam Rabbah. To commence reading this series from the beginning of Sedar Olam Rabbah, go to Adam to Joseph : Seder Olam Rabbah (No.2)
This two part article contains the following sections.
2. Creation to the Diaspora in 70 CE
3. Seder Olam Rabbah, Solomon's Temple, and Zerrubabel
4. Further articles in the Seder Olam Rabbah Series.
6. Related Reading
The Missing Years in Seder Olam Rabbah:
Seder Olam Rabbah : Jewish literature of second century A.D. midrashic chronological work, generally regarded as a work of the tanna Jose b. Halafta. [The "tannaim" were the masters of the "oral law," i.e. the men who wrote the Talmud.]
It is a chronological record extending from Adam to the revolt of Bar Kokba in the reign of emperor Hadrian in the 130's A.D.. It is terribly flawed in the chronology it presents--thus the claim that Adam was only created in 3760 B.C. http://www.israelofgod.org/dealing.htm Frank W. Nelte January 1999)
2. Creation to the Diaspora in 70 CE
in relation to the Persian Kingdom.
In Seder Olam Rabbah Part 1 - I directly addressed the issue of the dates for the period from Creation to the Diaspora of 70 CE as it pertains to the reduction of the period of Persian Rule.
3828 years from Creation to the 70 CE destruction of the temple
1656 years from Creation to the flood.
Therefore, from the Flood to 70 CE there are 2172 years.
[These figures are found and can be calculated from within this Jewish Encyclopaeida article. Note however that in following Biblical Chronologies, the total number of years to transpire between the flood and 104 BCE is 2267 years + the years to 70 CE]
Since the KingsCalendar artificial calendar is in evidence as late as 104 BCE, one might 'assume' [state as a fact, something for which there is no actual evidence] that all chronological details provided prior to this time, were in artificial measurements, and everything after that time was in Solar measurement. Therefore: 104 BCE to 70 CE. = 173 Solar years.
To subtract these 173 years from the period "The Flood to 70 AD", results in a figure of 1999 years. If these years be artificial which they most probably are, they convert into 1845 true solar years, meaning that there will be a discrepancy of 154 years between actual history and perceived history.
Rabbi Yose's order is viewed by all authorities as the only accepted Rabbinic count from creation. But there is a difference of 170 years between Rabbinic chronology and conventional chronology. Conventional chronology states that the Persians ruled Israel from 539 BC to 332 BC (207 years). Rabbinic chronology says the Persians ruled for 52 years.]
Since the historical records of Israel will have taken precedence over the profane, it would have been necessary to compress secular history. [The reverse happens today]. Therefore, it is no surprise that the Persian Period (539-332 BCE), measuring approx. 207 years was reduced to 52 years, a discrepancy of 155 years.
Put another way, the lengths of various events in Israel's past, being artificial, extended time, which is to say, that they took up too much time in history. Trying to marry the chronological information with the profane (secular) sources, meant that the secular information had too much chronological data, and therefore must have been wrong.
However, from the King's Calendar chronological perspective, these 154/155 years would not have been removed, had the Author of the Seder Olam Rabbah known that the Israelite information was artificial.
The particular point made in this section, is that one possible explanation for time discrepancy, might be found in the use of an artificial construct (Biblical Chronology) to measure Real History (Solar years). [In Relation to the actual times specified between Creation and 70 CE. A closer chronological examination will be presented in another section at a later date].
In the article entitled: Parshat Terumah (1 Kings 5:26-6:13) February 12, 2005 the discussion involves itself with the question of 1 kings 6:1 chronologically connecting the Exodus to the 4th year of Solomon (when he commenced to build the temple), and not Creation. For a Discussion on 1 Kings 6:1 and the 480 years, See:
The point made is that the Seder Olam Rabbah wishes to present chronological symmetry, in that 480 years elapsed between the Exodus and the commencement of Solomon's Temple, and 480 years elapsed unto Zerrubabel's commencement of the Temple's restoration.
In this section, we are going to examine the details to see if the claim is true.
480 Years - The Parameters:
Solomon's temple & Zerrubabel's temple.
Checking the parameters of the Seder Olam Rabbah chronology, against the King's Calendar Reconstruction of Israelite History, demonstrates that the claim that 480 years elapse between the two events is Valid, but not quite in the way it was intended.
King's Calendar Chronology for The Two Temples:
The King's Calendar Dates for Solomon are:
Line 419 973 BCE - 1st Year of Reign
Line 416 970 BCE Solomon's 4th year Temple commences.
Line 409 964 BCE Solomon's 11th year Temple completed.
Go to Appendix 12 (Josephus) on the precis page. It contains King's Calendar Line Nos (left column), artificial years, and all calendar years from 104 BCE to 1941 BCE. You can use this chart to check all mathematical calculations cited in this article.
Measuring 480 years from Solomon's Temple.
To measure 480 years from Solomon's Temple, we have to measure from both the commencement and completion years, and measure in both artificial and solar years.
Commencement of the Temple 970 BCE 480 solar years = 490 BCE Completion of the Temple 964 BCE 480 solar years = 484 BCE
Neither of the resultant dates seems to relate to Zerrubabel's Temple building.
(The year 586 BCE on the King's Calendar is Line '00' . The following calculations must use Line '00' as an additional year.)
Commencement of Solomon's Temple 970 BCE (Line 416) 480 artificial years = Line 63 = 528 BCE Completion of Solomon's Temple 964 BCE (Line 409) 480 artificial years = Line 70 = 522 BCE
Commencement of Zerrubabel's Temple: 522 BCE
522 BCE (Line 70 on the King's Calendar) when building of the Temple recommenced, is 480 artificial years after Solomon completed the first temple. (522 BCE = Line 70 down to Line '00' up to Line 409 (964 BCE) = 70 + 1 + 409 = 480)
Using non King's Calendar Figures.
Since only the King's Calendar can provide a mathematical justification for it's placement of King Solomon's reign, and the figures used above come from the King's Calendar, the only way to calculate a 480 year period between Solomon's Temple and the Post Exilic Temple, is to calculate back from either 522 BCE (commencement) or 516 BCE (completion) of Zerrubabel's Temple.
522 BCE + 480 solar years = 1002 BCE which is far too early by currently accepted standards for Solomon's Reign. 516 BCE + 480 solar years = 996 BCE, which is still too early.
The King's Calendar calculation seems to be the only one that makes a 480 year connection between the two events. The 480 years appear to transpire between the completion of Solomon's Temple, and the Commencement of Zerrubabel's Temple.
But using the King's Calendar Artificial Calendar is not the only way to calculate it.
Mixture of Artificial & Solar Years
A: - In Mixed years Artificial & Solar years
From Solomon's 4th year 970 BCE Line 416 to and including 586 BCE Line 00 there are 417 years. From 585 BCE to 522 BCE = 63 Solar Years.
This appears to be the most likely explanation of the 480 years mentioned in Seder Olam Rabbah.
B:- In Mixed years - Artificial & Solar
From Solomon's 1st yearLine 419 973 BCE to the Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE Line 00, 433.5 Biblical years transpire, leaving 46.5 Solar years to transpire until 539 BCE
This takes us to the time of Cyrus, not the rebuilding of the Temple.
The figure '480 years' from these perspectives, will be seen to be a mixture of Artificial and Solar Years.
A problem Arises
Despite the foregoing King's Calendar Artificial chronological presentations, the King's Calendar Chart (which synchronises the Biblical data for the Divided Kingdom Period), demonstrates that the biblical data includes 13.5 years overlapping years. (12 year for Uzziah, 1 year for Jotham & Ahaz & 6 months for Jehoiachin and Jehoahaz) Check Appendix 5 reconstruction for the Divided Kingdom.
Therefore, the 480 years which were measured on the King's Calendar in the foregoing section, are recorded in the Biblical Narratives as 493.5 years. For those calculations to be correct, the excess 13.5 years would have to have been known to the writer of Seder Olam. This I doubt.
We must therefore recalculate the period of 480 years, using the unadjusted biblical data.
Using the Biblical Chronological References Consecutively: including the 13.5 years of overlapping reigns
Note: There are 393.5 years listed in the Biblical Narratives from Rehoboam to Zedekiah.
6 Projections: 3 using Artificial year & 3 using Solar years.
1. No Relevance from Solomon's 1st year.
Calculating from Solomon's 1st year to 586 BCE Babylonian Exile (393.5 + 40 =) 453.5 years. Deducting these from 480 years = 26.5 years left until Zerrubabel's Temple.
From 586 BCE deduct 26.5 Artificial years = 561/562 BCE
From 586 BCE deduct 26.5 Solar years = 559 BCE
There appears to be no Relevance.
2. Some Relevance from Solomon's 4th year. (Commencement of the Temple)
Calculating from Solomon's 4th year. (393.5 + 36 =) 429.5 years. Deducting these from 480 years = 50.5 years
From 586 BCE deduct 50.5 Artificial Years = 539 BCE indicating Cyrus & Babylon.Relevance
From 586 BCE deduct 50.5 Solar Years = 535 BCE No Relevance
The 480 year period has relevance to the Fall of Babylon, but not to Zerrubabel's Temple.
3. Some Relevance from Solomon's 11th year (Completion of the Temple)
Calculating from Solomon's 11th year (393.5 + 29 years = ) 422.5 years Deducting these years from 480 years = 57.5 years.
From 586 BCE deduct 57.5 Artificial Years = 533/534 BCE No relevance
From 586 BCE deduct 57.5 Solar Years = 538 BCE Relevance to Cyrus & Babylon
Again no relevance to Zerrubabel, but there is relevance to the fall of Babylon.
480 solar years do not elapse between Solomon and Zerrubabel.
Only if the author of Seder Olam Rabbah knew that the Biblical Data contained an excessive 13.5 years (which I doubt), could 480 artificial years elapse between Solomon's Temple and Zerrubabel's Temple.
It is possible that the 480 year figure is a composite mix of solar and artificial years.
The STATED parameters within the Seder Olam Rabbah are incorrect,
Using the King's Calendar chart (which cause 13.5 years to disappear), one can see that between the Completion of Solomon's Temple and the Commencement of the 2nd Temple, 480 artificial years transpire.
Likewise, it can also be determined that 480 mixed years transpire between Solomon's 4th and both Cyrus' conquest of Babylon - or - 522 BCE to the Commencement of the 2nd Temple.
Likewise, it can also be determined that 480 mixed years transpire between Solomon's 11th year and Cyrus' conquest of Babylon.
Likewise, it can also be determined that 480 mixed years transpire between Solomon's 1st year and Cyrus' Conquest of Babylon.
I cannot at this time explain how the Seder Olam Rabbah figure was established, because as the King's Calendar artificial reconstruction removes the excess 13.5 years of overlapping data, one cannot be sure what the Reb was working from, whether it is calculated purely in artificial year or a mixture of artificial and solar years, and what it's intended parameters were. Nevertheless, the 480 year figure is quite significant.
4. Further articles in the Seder Olam Rabbah Series.
As mentioned at the beginning of this article, my first foray into this field of study, was meant as nothing more than an interesting aside; and observation of some connection between the artificial chronology and the data in the Seder Olam Rabbah.
Having now looked a little more closely, I have decided to investigate even further, and have begun to publish further articles. That list appears after the Bibliography.
More Seder Olam Articles after Bibliography:
Bibliography and related articles
Eisenman R.H., Wise.M. (1992) The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered U.K.Element Books. pp.92/93
Grimal.N. (1992, p. 392) Assumed to be from "A History of Ancient Egypt" [Reference not in K.C. Bibliography.]
Marston. C. (1935) The Bible is true: The lessons of the 1925-34 excavations in Bible lands summarized and explained. Australia. Angus and Robertson.
Dates for Nabopolassar & Nebuchadrezzar Kings of Babylon - and - Josiah and Jehoiakim Kings of Judah as per (Wiseman.D.J. (1961) Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 BC) in the British Museum. Trustees of the British Museum. London) Using Babylonian Chronicles B.M. 22047 (p.65) and BM 21946 (p.67) But with a one (1) year adjustment for the Reigns of Nabopolassar and Nebuchadrezzar.
607 bce - Sep - Nabopolassar engaged at Bit-Hanunia / Urartu - 18th year - B.M. 22047 Line 1-4
607 bce - Dec - Josiah's 31st year commences
607 bce - Dec/Jan - Nabopolassar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 1-4
606 bce - May/Jun - Campaigning to the north - 19th year - B.M. 22047 Lines 5-7
606 bce - Jun/Jul - Nabopolassar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 8
606 bce - Jul/Aug - Necho heads North for Carchemish
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Nebuchadrezzar returns to Babylon - B.M. 22047 Line 12
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Josiah of Judah slain
606 bce - Aug/Sep - Jehoahaz becomes king of Judah
606 bce - Sep/Oct - Nabopolassar Heads to Kimuhu - B.M. 22047 Line 12
606 bce - Nov - Nabopolassar captures Kimuhu - B.M. 22047 Line 14
606 bce - Nov - Jehoahaz deposed by Pharaoh Necho - taken to Riblah
606 bce - Nov - Jehoiakim commences - 1st Artificial year commences.
Academic Newsletter No 12 Josiah to the Destruction of Jerusalem
Academic Newsletter No 13 A Biblical Contradiction which is Not!
Academic Newsletter No 14 The Chronologies of Josephus
Academic Newsletter No 15 The Burning of the Temple
Academic Newsletter No 16 The Life and Death of King Ahab of Israel
Academic Newsletter No 17 The Significance of Ahab's death
Academic Newsletter No 18 The Septuagint, The Masorete and the Exodus
Academic Newsletter No. 19 Josephus and the date of the Exodus
Academic Newsletter No. 20 Is the Bible God Inspired or just the History of Israel?
Academic Newsletter Nos. 21 - 24 December 2005 Laws of Evidence
Academic Newsletter No.25 : Dec 28th 2005: Babylonian King Nebuchadrezzar: The Evidence
Academic Newsletter No. 26 Exodus 15: Pharaoh of the Exodus: Who was he? Did he Drown?
Footnote Commentary on the King's Calendar
King's Calendar Chronological Research
The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE (but continuing down to at least 104 BCE), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate 'solar year' chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, which listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.
When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix Five to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]
The formula for constructing the artificial calendar
'X' times 364 = 'Y' days
'Y' days divided by 336 = 'Z' artificial years.
'X' = any given number of 'real/solar' years
364 = perceived days in the sectarian calendar
'Y' = number of days calculated
336 = number of days in an artificial year
'Z' = artificial years = 1.083'X' and represents the original number of the converted years plus 8%.
To reverse the process by hand: 'Z' years times 336 equals 'Y' divided by 364 = the Original Number of 'X' years converted.
To see how effective this method is view Appendix 5:
The Principle of Linear Causality
The King's Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work. Appendix 5:
Because it is a mathematical system, the King's Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It's like a 'domino effect'. Chronological references cannot be 'forced' to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or 'compressed' as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.
If any King's Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King's Calendar successfully defends its' position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King's Calendar is 'proven' wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.
Because of this, the King's Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel's history is unique, in that its' methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its' chronological predictions are able to be 'proved' or 'disproved'.
Solar Year Calculations
The Biblical Data as it stands, exceeds available history for the parameters it sets. The KingsCalendar, which assigns each Biblical Year a value of 336 days, reduces the overall Biblical Data by roughly 8%.
When working in Solar Years, many problems arise.
For example, Counting from 586 BCE to 701 BCE in literal Solar Years makes:
a). 701 BCE Hezekiah's 24th year not his 14th year.
b) 702 BCE Hezekiah's 23rd year
c) 703 BCE Hezekiah's 22nd year
d) 713 BCE Hezekiah's 12th year
e) 722 BCE (Fall of Samaria) Hezekiah's 3rd year not his 6th year.
f) 724 BCE (Siege of Samaria) Hezekiah's 1st year not his 4th year.
g) 729 BCE Ahaz' 12th year
h) 730 BCE Ahaz' 11th year
i) 730 BCE Hoshea of Samaria 1st year
j) 734-732 BCE Syro-Ephraimic War Ahaz & Pekah.
k) 740 BCE Ahaz' 1st year.
However When working in Solar years counting down from the accepted date for the commencement of the reigns of Jehu (Israel) and Athaliah [Judah], that is, from 841 BCE to 701 BCE, the following is the result.
a) 701 BCE = Ahaz 13 th year
b) 702 BCE Hoshea commences to rule in Samaria
c) 703 BCE Pekah's 28th year.
d) 713 BCE Ahaz' 1st year (18th of Pekah)
e) 722 BCE Jotham's 8th Year & Pekah's 9th Year
f) 724 BCE Jotham's 6th Year & Pekah's 7th Year
g) 729 BCE Jotham's 1st year & 2nd Year of Pekah
h) 730 BCE Uzziah's 52nd year
i) 730 BCE Pekah's 1st year
j) 734-732 BCE Syro-Ephraimitic War must have been fought by Uzziah.
k) 740 BCE Uzziah's 42nd Year & Menehem's 4th year.
Result: Solar Year Calculations are insufficient to understand Biblical and Extra Biblical Chronology.
R.P.BenDedek is from Brisbane Australia and is the author of 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran' at http://www.kingscalendar.com His academic articles set forth Apologetics for and results of his discovery of an "artificial chronological scheme" running through the Bible, Josephus, the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Seder Olam Rabbah.
He writes photographic 'Stories from China' and social editorial commentaries, both at KingsCalendar, and as a contributing newspaper columnist. He currently teaches Conversational English in China and in addition to his English Lessons at KingsCalendar, he has created specific sites for Students of English.