Synchronous Chronology of Ancient Israel and Judah

This article (for the most part) was originally published many years ago under the title ‘What is the King’s Calendar?

R.P. BenDedek MuslimsThe King’s Calendar: The Secret of Qumran is the published result of ten years of research into the issue of the troubling chronologies contained in the Bible, and in particular, in the books of Kings and Chronicles.

The purpose of this article is to explain to readers what this research is and how it operates. It is a demonstration of sorts. See also:

The Methodology of the King’s Calendar – and –
Assumptions and Limitations.

In short, the King’s Calendar is a Mathematical Computer Generated Synchronism of the Biblical Data found in the Books of Kings and Chronicles in relation to the two kingdoms (Judah and Israel) that came into being upon the death of King Solomon.

1. Defining the King’s Calendar Chronological Research

The King’s Calendar is a computer generated mathematical synchronism primarily of all the Biblical Chronological Data for the Divided Kingdom of Israel, but extending its’ application to the chronologies of Josephus, Seder Olam Rabbah and the Damascus Documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

It assigns a value of 336 days per Biblical Year derived from the Hypothesis that:

The Proto-Essenes or Hasidim, firstly in Babylonia and later in Palestine, altered the true solar year history of Israel.
Counting each year as comprised of 364 days
They divided these 364 days into 7 day periods
And divided these into 4 week months
To create an artificial year of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days.

The Premise:

Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC (but continuing down to at least 104 BC)
Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate ‘solar year’ chronological records of Israel into the artificial form
Altering the legitimate history of Israel
And extending it, by creating 13 artificial years where 12 solar years once stood

When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. (SEE : Appendix 5) The Divided Kingdom Period lasted from 936 to 722 BC with the kingdom of Judah continuing until 586 BC.

The King’s Calendar is a series of calendars that visually depict the Biblical chronological synchronisms. All but Appendix 5 have Line Numbers so as to provide a ready reckoning for the purposes of calculations.

This section below of that synchronized calendar demonstrates how the reigns of the Kings of the two kingdoms are synchronized – but readers must be aware that years are measured as periods of 336 days.

Abijah, Asa, Nedab, Baasha for New site 348
March 921 on the top line indicates that both Rehoboam and Jereboam are in their 17th year. From that point onward in both kingdoms over a period of 6 years, we see how scripture aligns the reigns of successive kings. There is a completely different chart in use in the ORIGINAL ARTICLE.

2. The formula for constructing the artificial calendar

Take ‘X’ number of Solar years
Multiply it by 364
To arrive at ‘Y’ number of days
Divide these ‘Y’ number of days by 336
The Result is ‘Z’ number of artificial years
‘Z’ artificial years = 1.083’X’ and represents the original number of converted years plus 8%.

To reverse the process by hand

‘Z’ years times 336 equals ‘Y’ divided by 364 = the Original Number of ‘X’ years converted.

3. The Principle of Linear Causality

The King’s Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work.

Because it is a mathematical system, the King’s Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It’s like a ‘domino effect.’ Chronological references cannot be ‘forced’ to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or ‘compressed’ as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.

If any King’s Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King’s Calendar successfully defends its position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King’s Calendar is ‘proven’ wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.

Because of this, the King’s Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel’s history is unique, in that its’ methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its’ chronological predictions are able to be ‘proved’ or ‘disproved.’

4. Solar Year Calculations

The Biblical Data as it stands exceeds available history for the parameters it sets. The KingsCalendar, which assigns each Biblical Year a value of 336 days, reduces the overall Biblical Data by roughly 8%. When working in Solar Years, many problems arise. For example, counting from 586 BC to 701 BC and beyond in literal Solar Years using the reigns of the kings of Judah, the reigns of Hezekiah, Ahaz, Jotham and Uzziah all screw up.

We start with 586 BC as the year of the Babylonian Captivity and therefore the 11th year of King Zedekiah. So we travel back 11 years from the Babylonian exile to the final year of reign of King Jehoiakim and then add in his 11 years, plus 31 years for the reign of King Josiah; add another two years for Amon’s reign and then add 55 years years for the duration of Manasseh’s reign – a total of 110 years – and we arrive at the last year (29th) of King Hezekiah in 696 BC. This is literally what academics do. King Hezekiah must have ended his reign in 696 BC. Well who am I to say otherwise?

The only problem is that everyone accepts that Sennacherib invaded Judah in 701 BC which, according to the Bible, is Hezekiah’s 14th year. Something is wrong! If Hezekiah’s last year is 696 BC then he only reigned 19 years not 29 years. Perhaps there is a transcription error here. Sennacherib’s invasion must have occurred during Hezekiah’s 24th year. Well that makes sense, if you ignore the scriptures which synchronize the reigns of Hezekiah and Hoshea during the siege and fall of Samaria 724 to 722 BC. Hezekiah would have been between his first and third year of reign not his 4th and 6th. (2 Kings 18)

When you follow the Biblical Chronological data for the Kings of Judah, and count out the years from 586 BC back to 701 BC and beyond, the following discrepancies occur:

a). 701 BC becomes Hezekiah’s 24th year not his 14th year.
b) 702 BC Hezekiah’s 23rd year
c) 703 BC Hezekiah’s 22nd year
d) 713 BC Hezekiah’s 12th year
e) 722 BC (Fall of Samaria) is Hezekiah’s 3rd year not his 6th year.
f) 724 BC (Siege of Samaria) is Hezekiah’s 1st year not his 4th year.
g) 729 BC Ahaz’ 12th year
h) 730 BC Ahaz’ 11th year
i) 730 BC Hoshea of Samaria 1st year
j) 734-732 BC Syro-Ephraimic War – Ahaz & Pekah.
k) 740 BC Ahaz’ 1st year.

The two great significances of these figures is that 701 BC is supposed to be [according to the Bible and Historians], Hezekiah’s 14th year, which it is plainly not; and that 740 BC as Ahaz’ 1st year, completely messes up all Biblical chronology in relation to Uzziah, Jotham, Menehem and Pekah.

(You can see what happens to the reigns of the four kings just mentioned by doing the math yourself and checking the history books. You will find all the Scriptural chronological references in Appendix 13. This will save you reading through your Bible.)

In the foregoing section we counted back from 586 BC.

Now we are going to count forward from 841 BC.

When working in Solar years counting down from the accepted date for the commencement of the reigns of Jehu (Israel) and Athaliah [Judah], that is, from 841 BC to 701 BC, the following is the result.

a) 701 BC = Ahaz 13 th year (Not Hezekiah’s 14th/24th year)
b) 702 BC Hoshea commences to rule in Samaria (20 years after he died)
c) 703 BC is Pekah’s 28 th year.
d) 713 BC is Ahaz’ 1st year (18th of Pekah)
e) 722 BC is Jotham’s 8th Year & Pekah’s 9th Year (but is supposed to be Hoshea’s 9th year)
f) 724 BC is Jotham’s 6th Year & Pekah’s 7th Year
g) 729 BC is Jotham’s 1st year & 2nd Year of Pekah
h) 730 BC is Uzziah’s 52nd year
i) 730 BC is Pekah’s 1st year
j) 734-732 BC when the Syro-Ephraimitic War occurred, King Uzziah of Judah was on the throne.
k) 740 BC is Uzziah’s 42nd Year & Menehem’s 4th year.

The Significance

The Significance of these figures, is that they throw all the Biblical data out the window and contradict known history.

The Result:

Using Solar Year Calculations to synchronise Biblical Data is insufficient to understand Biblical and Extra Biblical Chronology and Historical Narrative, and contradicts known history.

In order to get around this problem, historians have to reject what the Bible says. The King’s Calendar however does not have to reject it. When each Biblical Year is given a different value than the 365 day solar year, the synchronisms work and align with known history. See Also:

Syro-Ephraimitic War : Issues of Legal Evidence.
How Historians Deceive Us and Manipulate Biblical Chronology.

5. King’s Calendar Application to other Chronological Data

To determine that the hypothesis of the King’s Calendar was valid, chronological references from Josephus and the Damascus Document of the Dead Sea Scrolls were given the same mathematical values, and chronological (calendar) charts were created to measure the references provided.

The results demonstrated that almost all Biblical and extra-biblical chronological data relating to the pre-Babylonian Exile period, are recorded in an artificial form.

To guarantee the accuracy of the historical results and application of the King’s Calendar reconstruction of Israelite history, extensive research was undertaken of historical and archaeological evidence, which threatened at certain points to undo the King’s Calendar mathematical predictions.

In order to justify its predictions, the King’s Calendar has also had to rely upon the Legal Rules of Evidence and Testimony (Arguments on Evidence) to demonstrate that many of the assumptions and opinions of historians, archaeologists and other academics are fundamentally flawed.

6. Josephus’ chronological references in relation to King David and the Exodus

The King’s Calendar presents calendars that include the chronological references of Josephus so that these references can be ‘visually measured’ against the backdrop of Israelite history. Of special interest in studying Josephus’ material, is that he appears to use original and unique data that is no longer available to us. The following is the conclusion to Chapter 20 of the King’s Calendar on Josephus.

From this study of Josephus’ data, it also seems reasonable to believe that he had access to at least Six (6) original, artificially correct, chronological pieces of datum, that are no longer available to us. These are:

1. That Jerusalem was founded 995 years prior to David’s reign.
2. That ‘an’ Exodus (Hyksos expulsion from Egypt) occurred 589 years prior to David’s reign.
3. That 52.5 years elapsed from the Exile to and including Cyrus’ kingship in Babylon.
4. That 995 years elapsed from the commencement of David’s reign to and including that of Aristobulus in 104 BC.
5. That 423 years elapsed between Cyrus’ accession as King of the Medes, and the death of Judas Maccabeus.
6. That 908.5 years elapsed between the Israelite entrance into Canaan under Joshua, and the Babylonian Exile.
See Josephus, Ancient History and Biblical Contradictions

7. Regarding 1 Kings 6:1 and The King’s Calendar Reconstruction of Historical Events

The 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 are Artificial years

They were originally recorded as Solar years extending from the Exodus to Solomon’s 1st year – From 1449 BC to 970 BC

They were transcribed into an artificial calendar that ought to have shown 480 years from entry into Canaan to Solomon’s 4th year, but the reference first parameter was left as at Exodus whilst the final parameter was changed to Solomon’s 4th year.

1 King’s 6:1 actually records 480 Artificial years from the entrance into Canaan to Solomon’s 4th year.

Therefore The Time frame for the Period of the Judges plus King Saul = 480 less 4 years for Solomon, and 40 years for David = 436 years. On this Topic See

Israel’s Period of the Judges
Exodus and The King’s Calendar
1 King’s 6:1 – The 480 years.

8. Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt

One result of the King’s Calendar investigation into Josephus, was that it was seen that Josephus’ reference to the ‘Exodus’ was actually a reference to the Hyksos Exodus from Egypt, and that as measured by the KingsCalendar, the year 1554 BC is identified.

[From Chapter 20 “Josephus” Example (viii) From the Departure from Egypt to Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC 1062.5 years elapse – Antiquities Book 10:8:5 Re: The burning of the temple]
Grimal N. (A History of Ancient Egypt. Blackwell, 1992, p. 392) places the Hyksos Expulsion at 1552BC – Refer also to Dollinger.A. (2000) An Introduction to the History and Culture of Pharaonic Egypt. Herodotus: Hyksos

The King’s Calendar date of 1554 BC does however fall within various dates provided by various academics for the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt. Such dates range from 1583 BC (Marston. C. 1935 The Bible is true: The lessons of the 1925-34 excavations in Bible lands summarized and explained. Australia. Angus and Robertson. p. 83) until after the commencement of the 18th Dynasty under Ahmose (c. 1570 – 1550 BC)

Author’s Concluding Note:

It is hoped that from all of the foregoing, you the reader will gain some insight into what ‘The King’s Calendar: The Secret of Qumran’ is, and now have understanding of the importance of the work.

You can view the full extent of the ‘Download Book’ in the Chapter Precis section on the old website. Several Chapters and Appendices are Free to Air.

You can purchase the book for $14.99 on the purchase page

You can see a redacted list of Academic Articles on the Academic Articles page.

Other Articles perhaps of interest are:

Who introduced the artificial Calendar into the Bible?
Bible Dates: How many days in a Biblical year?
Judah King List
Israel Kings List

The KingsCalendar The Secret of QumranR.P. BenDedek
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