In Search of the Pharaoh of the Exodus


Professor BenDedek Oct. 2016
Professor Luo (Me) October 2016 addressing Chinese students at the end of a speech contest in Suzhou. Photo courtesy of Wang Yan

This article is just one part of a larger article published many years ago on the old KingsCalendar website (which is not that smartphone friendly). The article summarizes the King’s Calendar position in relation to the identification of the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Whilst the King’s Calendar records biblical years in periods of 336 days, it must only rely on the Chronological data in the Scriptures and is not free to alter that chronology. (See the section on Linear Causality at the Bottom of the page.)

In Search of the Pharaoh of the Exodus: The King’s Calendar Calculation.

Starting in 586 BC as the Year of the Babylonian Exile, the King’s Calendar synchronizes all the chronological data for the Divided Kingdom period (See: Appendix 5) and arrives eventually at 970 BC for Solomon’s 4th year, the year in which he commenced building the Temple.

Note that in doing so, the King’s Calendar discovered 13.5 years of overlapping reigns and so uses a composite total that is less than that used by other researchers.

As quoted in the original article (also see: Historical Evidence for Moses & Pharaoh) the general consensus is that Solomon’s 4th year was 967 BC. Add 480 years and you arrive at 1447 BC for the Exodus. The King’s Calendar puts the Exodus at 1449 BC. (Ref to Chapter Precis page – Appendix 12 Line Numbers)

Now note that the King’s Calendar determinations are based solely on sequential and synchronous chronological data contained in the Bible, – and – that the King’s Calendar uses a period of only 336 days per Biblical year. (What is the King’s Calendar) It is interesting then that two completely different methods of calculating time, arrive at nearly the same point in history.

Additionally, The King’s Calendar maintains that the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 are artificial years that do not consist of 440 years in Canaan and 40 years in the Wilderness. (See: 1 Kings 6:1 The 480 Years.)

The Masoretic Text reference to 480 artificial years is equal to a period of 443 solar years. The 440 year reference in the Septuagint which is in solar years, is a corrupt text containing a redundancy that indicates that the original quote was 440 (solar) years from Entry into Canaan to the First year of Solomon.

The King’s Calendar determines that the 480 years backdated from Solomon’s 4th year arrives at 1412 BC as the 1st year of entrance into Canaan. To this date is added another 40 artificial years for the duration of the Wilderness wanderings, to arrive at 1449 BC for the Exodus Event. You can see this played out on the calendar in Appendix 12 on the Precis Page. (Line 416 to line 935 : Left hand Margin)

Line 416 to Line 895 a total of 480 artificial years transpire between Solomon’s 4th year and Entrance into Canaan.

Line 416 to Line 935 a total of 520 years transpire between Solomon’s 4th year and the 1st year of Exodus.

1449 BC which is ‘Year One’ of the Exodus, is Moses’ 81st year and is found on Line 935. If you count back 40 years (= Line 975) you arrive at 1486 BC as Moses’ 41st year. Count back 40 years (= Line 1015) and you arrive at Moses 1st year or 1523 BC. (The apologetics for all of this material are found in Chapters 15 and 16 of the King’s Calendar.)

You will find that none of the King’ Calendar determinations with regard to Moses or the Exodus, are in conflict with traditional datings for the 18th Egyptian Dynasty.

The Hyksos. As previously indicated, some people equate the Mosaic Exodus with the Hyksos expulsion from Egypt. At this point I want to draw your attention to a few matters.

Josephus in Antiquities. Book 10:8:5 states that: “From the Departure from Egypt to Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC 1062.5 years elapse.”

Everyone has assumed that he was referring to the Mosaic Exodus, but the King’s Calendar determines the date of the departure mentioned, to be 1554 BC [ Line 1048 ], a date right smack in the middle of various dates suggested by historians as that in which the Hyksos were expelled from Egypt. (Refer to No. 4 Math & Science Josephus and the Hyksos)

Moses was born just 33 artificial years or 31 years after the Hyksos were expelled from Egypt. The proximity between the two might explain the reason for the Israelite bondage.

Within the calculations offered here from Solomon’s Temple to the Entrance into Canaan, no mention was made of the Period of the Judges.

The Biblical data for the period of the Judges is way too excessive within an historical possibility.

The books of Judges, Samuel, Kings and Chronicles provide no details for the lengths of the judgeships of Joshua or Samuel, or for the Kingship of Saul.

The King’s Calendar, in it’s path to applying the Biblical Math to the Date of the Exodus, offers a complete breakdown for the Period of the Judges. Israel’s Period of the Judges

So who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus?
You Might be surprised!
Try Reading:-
Pharaoh of the Exodus
Pharaoh of the Exodus: Did he Drown?

Additional Reading

Who introduced the artificial Calendar into the Bible?
Assumptions and Limitations
LXX, The MSS and the Exodus.

The KingsCalendar The Secret of QumranR.P. BenDedek
Articles at

Author of
The King’s Calendar : The Secret of Qumran
“Finding Myself in China: A Politically Incorrect Story”

Other Relevant Dates

Line 895 1412 BC 1st year in Canaan
Line 935 1449 BC 1st year of Exodus [81st of Moses]
Line 1015 1523 BC 1st year of Moses- 80 years before Exodus
Line 1021 1529 BC 86 years before Exodus – Slavery Commenced.
Line 1048 1554 BC 113 years to Exodus / 103rd year of 215 year Sojourn in Egypt
Line 1051 1556 BC 116 years to Exodus – Death of Levi

Math and Science of the King’s Calendar Series

No. 1 Math & Science Original : Math and Science of the King’s Calendar..
No. 2 Math & Science Onias III : Teacher of Righteousness
No. 3 Math & Science Exodus Theories : Who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus?
No. 4 Math & Science Josephus and the Hyksos
No. 5 Math & Science Adad-Nirari’s Western Campaign
No. 6 Math & Science King Jehu of Israel 848 BC.

Definition: King’s Calendar Chronological Research

What is the King’s Calendar?

The Premise: Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC (but continuing down to at least 104 BC), Sectarian redactors transcribed the legitimate ‘solar year’ chronological records of Israel and Judah, into an artificial form, with listed years as each comprised of 12 months of 4 weeks of 7 days, or 336 days per year, thus creating a 13th artificial year where 12 solar years existed.

When the Synchronous Chronological Data provided in the Books of Kings and Chronicles for the Divided Kingdom Period are measured in years of 336 days, the synchronisms actually align. [Refer to Appendix Five to see how it synchronises the Divided Kingdom Period]

General formula for Biblical Data conversion:

The formula for constructing the artificial calendar was:

‘X’ times 364 equals ‘Y’ days’Y’ days divided by 336 equals ‘Z’ artificial years.Values are:’X’ = any given number of ‘real/solar’ years364 = perceived days in the sectarian calendar’Y’ = number of days calculated336 = number of days in an artificial year’Z’ = artificial years = 1.083’X’ and represents the original number of the converted years plus 8%.To reverse the process by hand:’Z’ years times 336 equals ‘Y’ divided by 364 equals the Number of ‘X’ years converted.

To see how effective this method is, SEE: Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BC:

The Principle of Linear Causality

The King’s Calendar is a very simple approach to Biblical Chronology. It substitutes a value of 336 days for every year listed in Scripture. As far as the Divided Kingdom is concerned, when you use this 336 day year value, the synchronisms actually work. To see how effective this method is, SEE: Appendix 5: Diagrammatic Reconstruction of Israelite History from 936 to 586 BC

Because it is a mathematical system, the King’s Calendar must abide by certain mathematical rules, the most important of which, is that if you change any date for any day, month, or year every other day, month, or year is effected and must also change. It’s like a ‘domino effect’. Chronological references cannot be ‘forced’ to fit, and nor can they simply be ignored or ‘compressed’ as is the usual case with historians and archaeologists.

If any King’s Calendar chronological determination disagrees with anything in the history books, it must argue the case as to why the history books are wrong, or why the evidence for an assertion is untrustworthy. If the King’s Calendar successfully defends its’ position, then the history books cannot be treated as definitive, and if the King’s Calendar is ‘proven’ wrong, then every other chronological reference it provides is also wrong.

Because of this, the King’s Calendar Chronological Reconstruction of Israel’s history is unique, in that its’ methodology can be scientifically (mathematically) tested and demonstrated to be either true or false. Its’ chronological predictions are able to be ‘proved’ or ‘disproved’.

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