In this article you will find nothing that contradicts the Egyptian, Assyrian or Babylonian Records.
This article is devoted to demonstrating that pieces of the historical jigsaw in relation to Ancient Near Eastern History that were thought to fit the jigsaw, have actually been forced to fit, and many pieces thought by Historians to have been superfluous and which were consequently thrown away, actually do belong. See also The Rules of Evidence & Archaeology Series:
Table of Content
This Article is divided into the following sections
* 1. The King’s Calendar Chronology for King Josiah
* 2. King Josiah’s Reforms
* 3. Where did King Josiah Die?
* 4. In What Year did King Josiah of Judah Die?
* 5. The Justification for a 609 BC Death of King Josiah
* 6. How, Where and When did King Josiah Die?
* 7. Article Summary
* 8. Article Conclusion.
1 : The King’s Calendar Chronology for King Josiah
* King Josiah of Judah was 8 years old when he began to reign
* He reigned 31 years [2 Kings 22:1 and 2 Chronicles 34:1]
* By the standard of the King’s Calendar he was born in 642 BC.
* He commenced to reign in April of 634 BC.
* He reigned 31 artificial or 28 solar years
* His 31st Year commenced December 607 BC
* King Josiah died around September 606 BC.
* He died in the 19th year of King Nabopolassar of Babylon.
* He died 3 years later than currently accepted.
* His death was not connected to an Egyptian/Assyrian attempt to recapture Haran
The yellow background in the chart below highlights the solar years of King Josiah’s reign and immediately to its right with no background is the listing for artificial years. To the left of the yellow background is listed the ministry of the prophet Jeremiah.
2 : King Josiah’s Reforms
King Josiah of Judah is pre-eminently known for his religious reforms. According to 2 Kings 22:3 in his 18th year King Josiah ordered repairs to the House of the Lord to be carried out. In the process of doing so, the Book of the Law was uncovered, and so began a process of restoring purity to religious observance in the Kingdom. 2 Chronicles 34:4 says that “in the twelfth year he began to purge Judah and Jerusalem from the high places, and the Asherim, and the graven images, and the molten images.” – and – Verse 8: Now in the eighteenth year of his reign, when he had purged the land, and the house, he sent [officers] to repair the house of the LORD his God.
According to an article entitled: Josiah (640-609) and Religious Reforms Old Testament History The Rise of Babylon and Exile (640 BC-538 BC) by Dennis Bratcher
* By 622 – Josiah was ready to launch sweeping reforms of the nation itself.
* These are probably the most well known of the religious reforms in biblical history, since so much attention is given them (2 Kings 22:3-23:25, 2 Chron 34:1-35:19).
* After consulting the prophetess Huldah, who confirmed the content of the Torah, Josiah used the book as a basis for the continuing reforms.
* [He] actively promoted centralized worship in Jerusalem and outlawed magic and sorcery.
* However, it is not at all clear about the true extent of the reforms or how deeply they affected the life of the nation. [Jeremiah] seems not to have been too enthusiastic about them.
* Part of the covenant perspective of Deuteronomy was that obedience to God brings blessings and long life, and yet the best king Israel had seen in a long time, who had faithfully obeyed God in restoring proper worship, was tragically killed as a relatively young man. That may well have raised questions about the validity of the Deuteronomic theology, and perhaps even raised questions about the viability of Yahweh worship (cf. Jer 44:15-19).
As Mr. Bratcher points out, from a biblical perspective, King Josiah’s death is problematical, but as we shall see, the problem is not just theological. (Anti-Biblical Viewpoint Another Flaw in the Perfect-Harmony Theory by Farrell Till)
When it comes to a discussion of the Death of King Josiah of Judah, there are usually two questions that immediately come to mind.
1.Where did he Actually Die? – A point of contention with skeptics,
– and –
2. When Did he Die? – A point of contention with the King’s Calendar.
(An Excellent Resource may be found at: Oxford Scholarship Online – Josiah)
3 : Where did King Josiah Die? What does the Bible Say?
2 Kings 23:29-30 says:
1. In Josiah’s days, Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt ‘went up’ to the king of
2. Assyria to the river Euphrates.
3. King Josiah went up to meet him
4. Pharaoh Necho slew him at Megiddo, when he saw him.
5. His servants carried him dead in a chariot from Megiddo.
2 Chronicles 35:20-24 says:
* Necho was on his way to fight at Carchemish on the Euphrates
1. Josiah went out against him
2. Necho sent envoys to forestall Josiah’s intent
3. Josiah disguised himself in order to fight with him
4. Josiah joined battle at Megiddo and was wounded
5. Josiah died later in Jerusalem.
Why the Discrepancy?
The Apologetics Press explanation of the apparent discrepancy is that the only difference in the texts is that one is more descriptive than the other. See: Where Did Josiah Die? by Jim Estabrook
Whilst that article might resolve for you a difficulty involving a ‘biblical infallibility’ issue related to biblical discrepancies, a more important issue relating to the year in which King Josiah died, is far from resolved.
Concealed within the biblical texts are difficulties that go unnoticed when one in ignorance accepts the word of historians, as to the timing of the actual event, for in fact, there is absolutely no evidence to support the historical contention that King Josiah died in 609 BC in what historians insist was an incident related to ‘The Battle for Haran,’ in the 17th year of Nabopolassar.
4 : In What Year did King Josiah of Judah Die?
Section 5. of King’s Calendar Chapter Two entitled: The Issue of Josiah’s Death – “Who killed him and in what year?” commences with the following passages.
* The issue of Josiah’s death has tremendous ramifications for the ‘King’s Calendar’ in relation to current perspectives for the chronological placement of the reigns of Nebuchadrezzar and his father.
Currently Josiah’s death is accepted to have occurred in 609 BC at Megiddo, in connection with a battle between Egyptians and Babylonians, during Nabopolassar’s 17th year. ‘The King’s Calendar’ however, places his death in 606 BC.
The question of which opinion is correct, is far from simple, for at the heart of the matter lies academic reliance upon biblical chronology.
Since the contention of the ‘King’s Calendar’ is that reliance upon biblical chronology in terms of currently accepted concepts of chronological ‘years’ leads to error, the claim here is that the very foundation of academic argument (the Biblical Narrative) is flawed.
This may seem a somewhat bold statement to make, but a cursory reading of Thiele (1966, preface – p.10), and Wiseman (1985, p.33), will offer some understanding of the lengths to which academics go, (and to which they will disagree), in order to understand and solve complex issues involved.
Before proceeding further, it is really important for religious students who accept the current academic chronological placement of Josiah’s death to understand that generally speaking, academics do not put any faith in or reliance upon either biblical chronology or narrative. See: Academic Deceit and Manipulation.
(If however, the information is no longer correct (for whatever reason), then modern Academics demonstrate a highly unscientific approach to history, when they quote Scripture to support various archaeological and Historical propositions.)
The very same academics who quote biblical chronological data pertinent to Kings Jehoiakim and Zedekiah of Judah to demonstrate that King Josiah died in 609 BC, reject most biblical references between the time of King Uzziah and the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC. If you would like to see exactly how the academics pull the wool over your eyes, look at this file which visually demonstrates the deceit.
It must be stated and recognized that there are absolutely no historical records, Egyptian, Assyrian, or Babylonian by which to date King Josiah’s reign or activities. So when academics quote the Bible, they do so only to justify their personal perspectives, and since the Bible provides no date or specific chronological detail by which Josiah’s date can be established, (other than backdating 22 years from 587 BC for the reigns of Zedekiah and Jehoiakim), what passes for ‘fact’ is merely ‘presumption.’
Presumption can rightly be described as an attempt to establish as a fact something for which no legal evidence or proof exists. (See: Bates, 1985, p.46) Refer: Legal Bibliography at end of Article – also: Articles in the Rules of Evidence Series
Let’s be clear about this, there is no reference anywhere to connect Josiah’s death to the year 609 BC.
It can only be demonstrated by adding the sum of the reigns of his descendants and backdating them from the fall of Jerusalem. But this is not proof that 609 BC is correct, because those same biblical texts that lead us to 609 BC do not synchronise with the Babylonian records or the opinions of academics who insist that 609 BC is correct.
For Example: The Bible says that King Jehoiachin of Judah was held captive for 37 years and released by Amel-Marduk. Whilst it is accepted that King Jehoiachin was released by Nebuchadrezzar’s successor, Amel Marduk, from an academic perspective the Bible chronology is incorrect, because backtracking 37 years from Amel Marduk’s accession or First Regnal Year, does not coincide with a fall of Jerusalem in 597 BC [the currently accepted date] or 596 BC [as demonstrated by the King’s Calendar]. The academics will tell you that in this matter, Bible chronology is wrong.
When it comes to a clash between what the Bible says and what academics say, it is always the academic who is considered correct, not the Bible. It is the premise of the King’s Calendar however, that the figures provided in the Bible for the reigns of the Kings of Israel and Judah are correct, but that they do not reflect true 365 day solar years.
Therefore, whilst the stated lengths of reign for the Kings of Judah between Josiah and Zedekiah (Babylonian Exile) do appear to indicate a 609 BC termination date for King Josiah, the real time difference between true time and artificial time is insufficient during these 22 biblical years to be immediately obvious. The real time difference is less than 2 years. (One of these years gets absorbed when using a 587 BC date for the fall of Jerusalem, therefore, little discrepancy in Biblical Chronology is noticed.)
If on the other hand, you continue counting back the biblical years from Josiah’s death, you will soon realise that the reigns of Manasseh and Hezekiah do not fit the picture painted by biblical chronology (if counted in real solar years) and known history. See:
This is to say that because biblical chronology seems to support a 609 BC death of King Josiah, we just accept that he did die in 609 BC. (Of course if we accept 609 BC because we trust academics, then we have a circular self sustaining self deception.) Once you begin to extend the time frame of biblical chronology however, you do begin to notice quite drastic “discrepancies.” [To see the effect of following Biblical Chronology using standard solar calculations go to: Appendix 4: which visually demonstrates the difficulties.]
Once you understand that academics as a matter of course reject biblical chronology because of it’s unreliability, then you can no longer trust their use of it to support their theories. Speaking plainly, one could say that in relation to the timing of King Josiah’s death, that they are asking you to trust that a known liar is for once telling the truth. Neither secular nor religious people should accept any biblical proof when proffered by academics endeavouring to have their theories accepted.
Once you recognise that academics generally speaking make educated guesses, but that the King’s Calendar uses a mathematical formula that succeeds in synchronising biblical chronology, it is not difficult to believe that biblical chronological data does not have a standard chronological value. That being the case, it may become more feasible for you to understand that the result of counting back the reigns of the Kings of Judah, from the time of the fall of Jerusalem to the death of King Josiah, does not arrive at 609 BC. This is demonstrated in the following Chart.
5 : The Justification for a 609 BC Death of King Josiah
As stated in chapter two of the King’s Calendar, justification for a 609 BC death of King Josiah rests on three basic premises, one of which was just mentioned.
A second justification, which is connected to the one mentioned above, relates to the belief that Jeremiah 46:2 correctly synchronises Nebuchadnezzar’s (first) accession year with Jehoiakim’s 4th year, and thereby justifies placing Josiah’s death in 609 BC.
Quite apart from the King’s Calendar chronological position on this matter, a significant problem arises when one relies on Jeremiah 46:2, because it contradicts Jeremiah 25:1. [See King’s Calendar Chapter 2 : Section 6. Contradiction of Jeremiah 25:1 and 46:2]
Since Jeremiah 25 equates the 4th of Jehoiakim with the 1st of Nebuchadrezzar, and Jeremiah 46 equates the 4th of Jehoiakim with the accession year of Nebuchadrezzar, the chronological synchronisms are contradictory. If one adds the 22 years of Zedekiah and Jehoiakim to 587 BC, one arrives at 609 BC for Josiah’s Death – and – one arrives at 605 BC for Nabopolassar’s 21st and last year (Nebuchadrezzar’s Ascension year) when the Battle of Carchemish occurred.
In Brief Jeremiah 25:1 is a prophetic word (not specifically related to the Battle of Carchemish), given in the 4th year of Jehoiakim. It includes a redactorial insertion to the effect that this 4th year was equivalent to Nebuchadrezzar’s 1st year.
Jeremiah 25:1-3 The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, that was the first year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon which Jeremiah the prophet spoke unto all the people of Judah, and to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying: From the thirteenth year of Josiah the son of Amon, king of Judah, even unto this day, these three and twenty years, the word of the LORD hath come unto me, and I have spoken unto you, speaking betimes and often; but ye have not hearkened.
Jeremiah 46:2 on the other hand is a specific prophecy related to the Battle of Carchemish, and definitively indicates that this battle occurred in the 4th year of Jehoiakim. Since the Babylonian Chronicles clearly indicate that this battle occurred in Nebuchadrezzar’s ascension year, these two biblical references are contradictory.
Jeremiah Chapter 46: 1-2 The word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning the nations. Of Egypt: concerning the army of Pharaoh-neco king of Egypt, which was by the river Euphrates in Carchemish, which Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon smote in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah.
By the standard of the King’s Calendar (chart above) the prophecy in Jeremiah 46:1-2 refers to the Battle of Carchemish in the 21st and last year of Nabopolassar, in the ascension year of Nebuchadrezzar, as can be found in the Babylonian Chronicles – Wiseman: (1961) B.M. 22047 (p.65) and BM 21946 Lines 1-5 (p.67)
The King’s Calendar position is therefore:
* Jeremiah 46:2 relates to Jehoiakim’s 3rd not 4th year, during the accession year of Nebuchadrezzar.
* Jeremiah 25:1 relates to the following and therefore 4th year of Jehoiakim during the 1st Regnal year of Nebuchadrezzar
* Academics have chosen the Biblical Data that best suits their agenda
I don’t propose to discuss the issue further here. (See: King’s Calendar Chapter Two issues and charts that demonstrate that Jeremiah 25:1 is the correct reference.)
The purpose here is to point out that relying on biblical chronology is not that straightforward, and relying on the academics who quote Bible verses is dangerous. Furthermore: If one has freedom to choose which of two contradictory chronological references one wishes, then from a legal perspective, citing Jeremiah 46:2 as proof of a fact, is erroneous. It is just an opinion.
Academic chronology for Josiah’s death and Jehoiakim’s 4th year, are not demonstrably factual. See: The Error Regarding King Nebuchadrezzar’s Reign (Part 1)
The final academic justification for placing King Josiah’s death in 609 BC, is that academics believe that the Bible indicates that Josiah died while Necho was on his way to assist Assur-Uballit in his final attempt to capture Harran during Nabopolassar’s 17th Regnal year. (Wiseman, 1961, p.63. Lines 66 – 67)
The fact of the matter is however, that there is no indication in biblical or other texts (Egyptian, Assyrian or Babylonian) to identify the year or precise event to which Josiah’s death is to be affixed. The word ‘precise’ is noteworthy when discussing the background to King Josiah’s Death.
Background to King Josiah’s Death
In order to provide a background to King Josiah’s Death, the following two excerpts from online sources are provided.
* After the reign of Hezekiah there is no record in the Assyrian inscriptions of any further raid on Judah. Till Assyria’s end in 612 BC, no king of Judah apparently dared defy the mighty power of the Assyrians. From the archaeological point of view this fact is regrettable, since it means that from that point on the Assyrian records have virtually no occasion to mention the Jews. Therefore, the important Manesseh-Amon-Josiah era (687-609 BC) is almost a blank as far as archaeology is concerned.
* The Assyrians were too occupied elsewhere to pay much attention to Israel. Josiah managed to regain control of portions of northern Israel that had been in Assyrian hands since the invasion that had destroyed Samaria in 721 BC.
* As Assyria grew weaker, the Babylonians were growing stronger and soon threatened to dominate Assyria.
* By 618 the Babylonians were pressing into Assyrian territory from the south, and the Egyptians sent troops to help defend Assyria.
* In 614 the ancient Assyrian capital of Asshur fell, and in 612 the capital city of Ninevah was destroyed by the Babylonians who also killed Sin-Shar-ishkin.
* Remnants of the Assyrian army fled to the west
* in 610 the Babylonian alliance captured Haran
* the Egyptians under Pharaoh Necho decided to send more troops to rescue the embattled Assyrians.
* Necho had to march through Israel along the major north-south corridor known as the Via Maris (“way of the sea”) that passed the Israelite fortress of Megiddo and then through the Valley of Jezreel.
* Josiah decided to intervene and try to stop Necho at the fortress of Megiddo.
* Josiah marched north and intercepted the Egyptians near Megiddo, but was killed in the ensuing battle and the Israelites were defeated. Necho continued northward and joined the struggling Assyrians for one last-ditch effort to reestablish Assyrian control of Haran. But the effort failed and the last remnants of the Assyrian army were wiped out.
The Problem with this Background
Some of these issues are discussed in greater detail in the article entitled: How Long Did King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon Reign?
The problems associated with the background to Josiah’s death are many and complex. They include issues related to:
* The Contradiction between Jeremiah 25:1 and Jeremiah 46:2
* Discrepancies between the biblical narratives in relation to Nebuchadrezzar and Daniel’s captivity and the Babylonian Chronicles
* Discrepancies between the Babylonian Chronicles and the biblical record concerning Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin and Zedekiah
* Biblical chronological contradictions in relation to the burning of the Jerusalem temple
* Biblical chronological contradictions in relation to Jehoiachin’s captivity and the death of Nebuchadrezzar
* An absence of specific details relating to Nebuchadrezzar’s reign
* Issues relating to the ‘apparently stated facts’ found within the biblical texts.
There are so many pertinent issues that they can’t all be covered here. They are mentioned however in Chapter Two of ‘The King’s Calendar: The Secret of Qumran,’ and in a variety of Articles published at King’s Calendar. Also See:
The Issue to be dealt with in this article, relates to the last point: ‘apparently stated facts.’
6 : How, Where and When did King Josiah Die?
Three particular points of interest:
Our current perception of what is recorded in relation to the death of Josiah has been influenced by two very prominent things, one of which is the wording in the biblical historical narrative, and the other is ‘academic opinion’ in relation to ancient history. On this latter point it has to be reiterated that academic opinion only relies on biblical texts when there is an absence of other evidence. In fact our perceptions of this biblical event may not be correct within the true historical context. For Example:
* 1. In relation to Josiah’s intent in going to meet with Necho
* 2. In relation to the name of the place at which Josiah was wounded/killed,
* 3. In relation to Pharaoh Necho’s destination; Carchemish.
Robinson (1932, p.424) and Herrman (1981, p.271), make several interesting comments which provide a basis for a whole new perspective of the biblical narratives. Robinson suggests that the whole episode at Megiddo is a corruption of an event that Herodotus places at Magdolos (Migdol) near Kadytis (Kadesh) on the Orontes, suggesting that the event has nothing to do with the campaign leading to the battle of Carchemish in 609 BC. (during the 17th year of Nabopolassar when Assur-Uballit attempted to capture Haran).
Herrman (Herrmann, S. 1981) sees no necessity to link these events to ‘The’ Battle of Carchemish, indicating that the biblical reference is not to a ‘specific battle,’ but to the general scenario of the times. He also finds nothing hostile in the rendering of the account but that it merely records an instance of Josiah going ‘up’ to Necho, not a going up ‘against’ him as has been assumed in the English translation.
From these two writers we can take note of three things:
* 1. Reference to Megiddo may in fact be corrupt. The event may have occurred much further north, well away from Judah.
* 2. Reference to Carchemish may have nothing to do with the Battle for Harran in 609 BC
* 3. Josiah’s intent toward Necho may not have been hostile, but rather that he meant to ‘join’ him.
Additionally, Miller and Hayes (1986, p.402) indicate that the Biblical accounts are misleading, whilst Jagersma, (1983, p.171) finds them ‘vague.’ That the accounts are vague, misleading and unreliable, makes them ineffective ‘direct evidences’ in the establishing of a fact. Their limited and conflicting data makes them unreliable in the pursuit of any ‘dependable and demonstrable’ opinion of events to which they relate.
Despite their unreliable and imprecise nature however, Thiele, (1966, p.194) in reliance upon Professor Wiseman’s work, maintains that the 609 BC date for Josiah’s death, is ‘fixed beyond question.’ In Fact, there is much to question about the chronology of Josiah’s Death.
The biblical narratives, do not provide unequivocal evidence:
* that Josiah stood in opposition to Necho;
* that this opposition occurred at Megiddo;
* that he was killed by him or his troops;
* or that the event occurred in the 17th regnal year of Nabopolassar.
The fact of the matter is, that the two biblical accounts are contradictory. In a court of law, neither testimony would be accepted without corroboration by direct or circumstantial evidence (Bates,1985,p.2 / p.82). In this case, not only is there no circumstantial evidence (the Babylonian Chronicles), or direct evidence (other material or records), but the one source from which corroboration ought to have been expected, the biblical record, is contradictory. [Note: This is a legal not theological point.]
* There is no ‘legitimate’ or ‘substantial’ evidence to support current opinion that Josiah died in the Battle related to the 17th year of Nabopolassar, currently dated to 609 BC.
* The King’s Calendar can mathematically demonstrate that Josiah died in 606 BC,
* Can demonstrate that the reigns of Nabopolassar and Nebuchadrezzar can be legitimately moved by one year, thus requiring Nabopolassar’s 17th year to be shifted to 608 BC. See:
More than this, the King’s Calendar, having synchronized King Josiah’s last year with the 19th year of Nabopolassar, notes that in the Babylonian Chronicles for the 19th year of Nabopolassar, that:
* In Tishri (Sept/Oct) of Nabopolassar’s 19th year
* (around the time that the ‘King’s Calendar’ maintains that Josiah died),
* Nabopolassar mustered his army and traveled to Kimuhu to meet the renewed threat of Egyptian attack down the Euphrates Valley.
* He captured Kimuhu in Kislev (Nov/Dec). (Babylonian Chronicles, (BM 22047- Line 12 /13)
* From this the ‘King’s Calendar’ perceives Josiah’s meeting with Necho in the context of Necho’s march on the Babylonian Garrisons, and Jehoahaz’ captivity in the context of Necho’s return to Egypt after Kimuhu is retaken.
From Appendix 6 – Chapter Precis Page
See 606 : Lines 8-12
See 604 : Aug to Oct : Jehoiakim’s 3rd year : Lines 9-13
You can find the text copy of the above details at Adjusting D.J. Wiseman’s Chronology for 607 – 595 BC Babylon and Judah
7 : Article Summary
Given that there is no “Direct” or Corroborating” evidence to indicate that Josiah’s death occurred during the 17th year of Nabopolassar currently dated to 609 BC, there is no evidential proof that the King’s Calendar date for King Josiah’s death is incorrect. (See: How long did King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon Reign?)
Given that archaeological records for Nebuchadrezzar are incomplete, and no direct or corroborating evidence can be provided to prove that Nebuchadrezzar reigned 43 years, there is no evidential proof that the 42 year reign of Nebuchadrezzar provided by the King’s Calendar is incorrect. See Chart on the Length of Nebuchadrezzar’s Reign HERE
Given that some academics find the Biblical narratives surrounding King Josiah’s death to be misleading, using those narratives to demonstrate an unstated fact is unscientific.
Given that most academics insist that the biblical narratives and chronologies records are erroneous and untrustworthy, the use of biblical chronology in standard solar years to support academic chronological theories is both unscientific and open to refutation from a legal perspective.
8 Article Conclusion.
The evidence for the timing of King Josiah’s death is ultimately just an academic calculation derived from “circumstantial evidence” found only in the biblical chronological material, which is generally rejected by the academic community as being an unreliable witness in the presentation of evidence.
Not only have historians failed to recognise the artificial nature of biblical chronology, but in choosing between contradictory biblical references, they have chosen the wrong ones.
Given that historians can provide no actual evidence of their chronological determinations, there can be no refutation of the King’s Calendar chronological determinations, unless it can be proved either that the King’s Calendar mathematical process is mathematically incorrect, or that the mathematical hypothesis of the King’s Calendar is unjustified.
Needless to say, given that the King’s Calendar computer generated Mathematical Synchronisation of the Biblical Chronological Data for the Divided Kingdom generally demonstrates the accuracy of the current academically determined history of Israel, the only way to prove that the King’s Calendar mathematical hypothesis is wrong, is to prove beyond reasonable doubt that two specific chronological determinations which are separated by biblical time, are in fact wrong, thereby demonstrating that the King’s Calendar value for Biblical Years is incorrect.
Until that time, the legitimacy of the King’s Calendar chronology for Israel and Judah in general, and for King Josiah of Judah specifically, is incontestable. Therefore:
The King’s Calendar determines that:
King Josiah reigned 31 Artificial years,
between April 634 BC, and September 606 BC,
a total of 27.5 Solar Years.
For a definition of the King’s Calendar chronological research read Synchronous Chronology of Ancient Israel and Judah (on this new site)
* Cornfeld.G. (1982) Josephus: The Jewish War. Zondervan Publishing House Michigan. (Antiquities Book 10:5:1 (74-77)
* Herrman (1981, p.271) Herrmann,S. (1981) A History of Israel in Old Testament Times. Philadelphia. Fortress Press.
* Jagersma,H. (1983) A History of Israel in the Old Testament Period. Philadelphia. Fortress Press (p.171)
* Miller,J.M., Hayes,J.M. (1986) A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. USA. Westminster Press. (p.402)
* Robinson,T.H. (1932) A History of Israel. Vol I. Oxford. Clarendon Press.
the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Paternoster Press (p.194)
* Thiele.E.R. (1966) The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings: a reconstruction of the chronology of
* Whiston. W. (1993) The Works of Josephus. Hendrickson Publishers. Massachusetts. USA
* Wiseman.D.J. (1961) Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 BC) in the British Museum. Trustees of the British Museum. London,
* Wiseman.D.J. (1985) Nebuchadrezzar and Babylon. The Schweich Lectures. Oxford University Press (p.33),
* Herodotus on the Pharaohs: Herodotus on Necho II (Histories 2,158f) Project Gutenberg.
* The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translated by William Whiston Edited by Sage Software
* Farrell Till Another Flaw in the Perfect-Harmony Theory
* Oxford Scholarship Online – Josiah
* Bates.F. (1985) Principles of Evidence. 3rd Edition. Sydney The Law Book Company Limited.[Circumstantial Evidence p.2 Martin v Osborne (1936) 55 CLR 367 at 375 & Corroborative evidence p.82]
* Freckelton. I.R. (1987) The Trial of the Expert. A Study of Expert Evidence and Forensic Experts. Melbourne.Aust.Oxford University Press.
* Ligertwood. A.L.C. [ 1988 ] Australian Evidence. First Edition. Butterworths P/l. North Ryde
* Vinson.D.E. (1985) How to Persuade Jurors. American Bar Association Journal 72, 76
* Gobbo. J.A., Byrne. D., Heydon J.D. (1979) Cross on Evidence 2nd Edition. Sydney. Aust. Butterworths Pty.Ltd.
* Vinson.D.E. (1985) How to Persuade Jurors. American Bar Association Journal 72, 76
* Legal Information Institute : Federal Rules of Evidence http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/fre/