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A Publication of Research Entitled:
The 'King's Calendar':
The Secret of Qumran
By R.P. BenDedek

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Chapter One..................................................... The Dead Sea Scrolls  One of the most significant discoveries in relation to the Dead Sea Scrolls is the accuracy with which ancient records were passed on.  The Exact identity of the Dead Sea Sect is still unknown but it is known that they were very much into 'Secrets' and 'Mysteries' and 'Calendars'.  Chronological material left by them indicates that they believed that G-d  commanded them to follow a 364 day calendar. Their Teacher is not overtly identified, but within the artificial calendar, he is chronologically identified as ONIAS III, one of only three possible candidates for the position.  This chapter explores these concepts and their relationship to the artificial calendar.  (site map)

Chapter Two......................................................The Starting Point  This chapter and the next are the 'Apologetics' chapters, and provides the foundation upon which the 'King's Calendar' proceeds.  It predominantly covers only a twenty year period of history (606 BCE to 586 BCE), but is significant in that it provides the basis for altering the length of Nebuchadrezzar's reign; for shifting the reign of Josiah from its current place; for synchronising the chronological information in the Babylonian Chronicles with the Biblical data; for demonstrating that 586 BCE and not 587 BCE is the year in which the Temple was destroyed; and for demonstrating the commencement date and insertion point of the artificial calendar into Israel's History. It will involve itself in a discussion of the political history of Babylon, and in particular argue that the current chronological placement of the reign of Kandalanu of Babylon is incorrect.  A reasonably heavy going chapter.

Chapter Three....................................................Jehoiakim 606 BCE. to 596 BCE. This is a continuation of the previous chapter and like it, examines data found in the Babylonian Chronicles, the Bible and Josephus, to support the foundational premise of the 'King's Calendar' hypothesis. It emphasises the reign of Jehoiakim in its synchronisation with the reign of Nebuchadrezzar.  Like its predecessor, it is a heavy going chapter, with a lot of historical and chronological material.  

Chapter Four.....................................................From the Death of Josiah to the Fall of Jerusalem  This chapter is basically a narrative chapter covering the twenty year period covered in the previous two chapters, and its purpose is to put that history into a narrative as opposed to argumentative form, so that the history of this period is revealed without the distractions of academic argument.

Chapter Five...................................................936 BCE. to 883 BCE.   This chapter presents the reigns of Rehoboam,  Abijah,  Asa,  Jeroboam,  Nedab,  Baasha,  Elah,  and Omri, as dictated by the biblical synchronisms.  It will also discuss a redactorial chronological error,  Israel's Internal Political Conflict,  and the matter of Chronological Discrepancies between the houses of Judah and Israel.  When one calculates the lengths of the reigns of these individual kings, one discovers that the data for the Northern Kingdom, for exactly the same period of time, exceeds that provided for the Southern Kingdom.  This results because the redactors used exact data for the southern kingdom, and inexact data for the Northern Kingdom. [Available in the full version]

Chapter Six.....................................................Ahab to Jehu  The specific purpose of this chapter is to examine 'one' specific redactorial chronological error, and its disastrous effect on the chronologies for this period in history. The Redactors got it wrong when they thought that Ahaziah of Israel reigned for two independent years subsequent to his father Ahab. The result of this error, is to mislead current students of the time, into creating chronological schemes that fail to synchronise.  It is not a question of whether one speaks of solar or artificial years, the error causes 'synchronistic' mismatching on the most fundamental level.   Through the lens of the 'King's Calendar', it is possible to visualise the erroneous assumption, because when all data is synchronised as required by the biblical data, not only are they almost totally correct, but in the process demonstrate that erroneous assumption.  The whole Chapter is devoted to 'synchronising' the chronological data, in order that the 'error' become obvious.  
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Chapter Seven................................................The Battle of Qarqar: 853 BCE.  One of the results of the previous chapter, is that it demonstrates that King Ahab of Israel died a decade before the 'Battle of Qarqar' in 853 BCE.  This is a significant divergence from currently accepted history, and within this chapter, recourse is made to legal requirements and argument in relation to the giving and substantiation of 'Evidence' and 'Testimony', and examines the variety of archaeological 'evidences' pertinent to this period of history. The conclusion of that examination, is that archaeologists and historians have excluded 'all' the archaeological records and evidences, (treating them as false),  and accepted as 'truth' the 'only'  archaeological record which places Ahab at this Battle.  Archaeological witnesses used in this chapter will include 'The Throne Base Inscription' of Shalmaneser, the 'Kurkh Stela' of Shalmaneser, the 'Moabite Stone' of king Mesha of Moab, and the Direct Documentary Evidences of the Biblical Narratives.   
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Chapter Eight..................................................Jehoshaphat to Ahaziah & Ahab to Jehoram: 883 BCE to 849 BCE  Having dispensed with all the legal and other arguments in justification of the 'King's Calendar' presentation of the reigns of the kings of this period, this chapter proceeds with the provision of narrative on the historical situation in relation to each of these kings (Ahab, Ahaziah and Jehoram of Israel: and Jehoshaphat, Jehoram and Ahaziah of Judah). 
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Chapter Nine..................................................883 BCE. to 756 BCE. The Ancient Near East  This chapter forms an interlude between Chapters Eight and Ten, and deals primarily not with Biblical  kings, but extra biblical kings and their countries.  We look at people such as Shalmaneser of Assyria and his descendants, and the kings of Syria from Ben-Hadad I to Hazael (who killed Jehoram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah).  This chapter provides us with some background information that enables us to better visualise the overall political situation in the Ancient Near East during these two Centuries. [Available in the full version]

Chapter Ten....................................................849 BCE to 756 BCE Athaliah to Uzziah & Jehu to Jeroboam II  Again in this chapter we follow the progression of kings in both Israel and Judah.  These include Athaliah of Judah, her grandson Joash, his son Amaziah and grandson Uzziah.  In Israel Jehu was followed by his descendants,  Jehoahaz and Jehoash and finally Jeroboam II.  There are several things to take note of in this time period, from a discussion of exactly who it was that Athaliah slew among the Royal Princes when she became regent for her grandson Joash, and of course the coup in which she died. We will take note of the Assyrian king Adad-Nirari and the possible date of his Western Campaigns, and we will examine the issue of the battle of Beth-Shemesh in which the provocateur, Amaziah of Judah, was defeated by Jehoash of Israel.  We will particularly examine the reigns of Amaziah and his son Uzziah and discover that Amaziah probably did not even live in Judah let alone rule it for the last dozen years of his life.  He was replaced by his sixteen year old son Uzziah, and later, while in exile, was assassinated. 
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Chapter Eleven................................................756 BCE. to 701 BCE.  Uzziah to Hezekiah (Apologetic)   This chapter is possibly the most complex chapter outside of Chapter Two.  It is an apologetic for the presentation which will follow in Chapter Twelve.  It contains not only the 'King's Calendar' synchronisation of reigns, but 'rebuttal' of current academic theories.  Furthermore, it will take the audacious step of declaring that almost all of the chronological data contained in the bible for this period is correct, but all the narrative identification of the kings is incorrect.  The redactors confused the identities of the various kings, and put the wrong names to various events.  The most famous of these is the assertion that Hezekiah was king of Judah when Hoshea of Israel was taken into captivity by Shalmaneser of Assyria.  When Samaria fell in 722 BC, it was Hezekiah's Brother Ahaz who was king in Judah, and the Biblical synchronisms prove it. 
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Chapter Twelve...............................................756 BCE. to 701 BCE.   Uzziah to Hezekiah (Narrative)  This is a representation of Chapter Eleven, but in the form of a narrative, without all the academic argument. [Available in the full version] 

Chapter Thirteen.............................................Manasseh to Zedekiah 687 BCE. to 586 BCE. This particular chapter provides the synchronisms and narrative on the lives of Manasseh, Amon and Josiah, at which time, it will have come full circle from Chapter Two, and all of the kings of the Divided Kingdom will have been discussed. [Available in the full version]

Chapter Fourteen...........................................Abraham to Solomon   This Chapter deals with the patriarchs, their ages, their birth and death years, the founding of Jerusalem, the length of the Sojourn, and in particular, looks at what the Bible says of Joseph and what we now know from Archaeology, to be the position of the Grandvizier. It even looks at the possibility that the famine prophesied by Joseph, was the result of the destruction of the Island of Thera - the Fabled Atlantis!  [Available in the full version]

Chapter Fifteen..............................................Polemical introduction to Moses  Current Academic Shepherds and their Theological Sheep, when condescending to permit the possibility of 'An' exodus, remove it from the Fifteenth Century BCE to the Thirteenth Century.  This chapter is devoted to a Polemical rebuttal of the grounds upon which such 'anti-biblical' and 'prejudiced' assertions are made.  They 'guess', they 'opinion', they 'believe', but they have no proof of the claims which they make.  In fact, they are quite illogical in their claims, for, if as they believe,  'The Exodus' did not occur in any manner similar to the claims made in Scripture, they can hardly stipulate that those (false) claims to a 'non event', occurred at all, let alone in another century. [Available in the full version]

Chapter Sixteen.............................................Moses and the Exodus  This chapter examines the story of the exodus from three perspectives. The records of Scripture, the records of Josephus, and the records of Archaeology.  The result is, that Josephus in his support of Scripture, goes far and beyond anything the Bible says, and provides such intimate knowledge of the Eighteenth Egyptian Dynasty, as has only begun to come to light in the last century.  Amongst other things he demonstrates what Historians have only recently discovered, that it was the Females of this Dynasty who conferred Kingship and Divinity. This chapter will also explore the possibility, that the Pharaoh of the Exodus was neither Amenhotep or his Father Thutmosis, but their Grandvizier Rekhmire. [Available in the full version]

Chapter Seventeen........................................Period of the Judges  The Biblical chronological material that is provided for the various Judgeships in Israel between the Fifteenth Century Exodus and the Eleventh Century Reign of King Saul, is way too excessive both in true Solar Years, and in the Artificial Calendar.  In this chapter, we firstly use the artificial construct to reduce that excessiveness.  Then we examine issues to determine the length of the Judgeships of Joshua, Samuel and Ehud, and finally, to chronologically determine each of the Judgeships listed in this period of History.  [Available in the full version]

Chapter Eighteen..........................................Pharaoh Merneptah  There are some academics who believe that our current placements of Egyptian Dynasties is incorrect, and as much as Two hundred out on reality.  This Chapter looks at the possibility that they are right, and the further possibility that Merneptah's Stela records the results of the Philistine battle in which King Saul was defeated, during which he suicided.   We explore the Philistine - Egyptian Connection. [Available in the full version]

Chapter Nineteen ........................................ Saul to Solomon. This is a very brief overview of the chronological placements of Saul, David and Solomon. [Available in the full version]

Chapter Twenty............................................. Josephus  In Appendix Two (The Research Proposal) examples were provided from the chronological references of Josephus, to demonstrate that his figures also need to be viewed through the lens of the artificial construct.  Chapter Twenty provides over forty examples of his references, which are examined, deconstructed and reconstructed to demonstrate that he had at his disposal not only correct chronological records, but original extra biblical material, that he did not know was recorded in an 'artificial' construct, and with which he included true 'solar' year calculations. 
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Chapter Twenty-One.....................................The Prophetic Seventy Years of  Jeremiah  Throughout the Prophets is the repetitive concept of a seventy (70) year Babylonian Exile as prophesied by Jeremiah.  Not only did the Exile not last seventy years, but various prophets interpreted the fulfilment of the prophecy differently.  In this chapter we view the prophecy and discover that it was not prophesied by Jeremiah but is an artificial calendrical redactorial insertion. [Available in the full version]

Chapter Twenty-Two....................................Ezekiel   This Chapter briefly examines the purpose and chronological placement of Ezekiel's vision and prophecy of a 430 year exile. [Available in the full version]

Chapter Twenty-Three..................................Daniel    No treatment of the prophets and chronological prophecies would be complete without a discussion on Daniel's Seventy weeks of years. Who does Daniel's prophecy identify? and are the higher critics correct in their assessment that this Prophecy was not written till the time of the Maccabean rebellion? [Available in the full version]

Chapter Twenty-Four....................................Epilogue  [Available in the full version]

 

Appendices

1.    Bibliography

2.    Research Proposal This appendix contains a succinct condensation of the "King's Calendar' Thesis, with accompanying justification. It allows readers to academically judge the merits of the thesis, without reading the complete volume. 

3.    Research Proposal  Calendar 586 BCE to 33 BCE  This is a calendar listing each artificial year for the time specified, along with the date and month of the commencement of each year.  Each Year is also assigned its own 'Line' number on that calendar, which facilitates mathematical projections in relation to Chronological references.

4.    Solar Year Time Line Chart. A chronological chart wherein individual years have a 'true' solar year value, and are provided as demonstration of the ineffectual nature of the Biblical Synchronisms. 

5.    'King's Calendar' Synchronous Chronological Reconstruction Chart 936 BCE - 586 BCE  This Chart demonstrates the  'King's Calendar' result of applying the Biblical Chronological Synchronisms in 'artificial years' from 936 BCE to 586 BCE.  It provides the reader with all the data necessary to 'visually' appreciate the regnal relationships between the kings of both Judah and Israel during the period of the Divided Kingdom.

6.    Nebuchadrezzar's 42 year Reign & Babylonian Chronicles: 18th year of Nabopolassar to 2nd of Nebuchadrezzar This appendix contains two charts.  The First demonstrates that if one accepts both Academic placement of Nebuchadrezzar's successor, and the Biblical Chronological Data, then Nebuchadrezzar must have reigned only 42 years not 43 years as is currently believed.   The second Chart marries chronological data contained in both the Bible and the Babylonian Chronicles.

7.    'Kings Calendar' :   Time Line Chart of the Patriarchs 936 BCE to 1940 BCE  This chart graphically portrays chronological data in relation to the Patriarchs, the Hyksos kings of Egypt, Kings David, Solomon and Saul, and includes the Founding Date of Jerusalem. [Available in the full version]

8.    Time Line Chart of the Judges  This chart reproduces much of the previous (Appendix Seven) but contains the graphic delineations of the 'Judgeships' from Joshua in 1412 BCE to Samuel (ending 1039 BCE). [Available in the full version]

9.    Deductive Reasoning.  This chart is a fuller version of that which appears in Appendix Two (Research Proposal), and postulates that the Biblical Chronological Data is either 'Non-Factual', therefore academics are foolish to use it to support their theories - 'Factual', therefore our understanding of History is incorrect, - or - 'Encrypted', which makes it illogical for academics to use it in support of their theories.  It further postulates that if the data is 'encrypted' it ought to be able to be deciphered. [Available in the full version]

10.  Methodology for the Generation of The 'King's Calendar'.  This appendix merely outlines the steps taken in generating the 'artificial calendar'.  These are also briefly mentioned in Appendix Two. [Available in the full version]

11.   'King's Calendar' : 586 BCE to 936 BCE This is a straight rendition of the 'King's Calendar' for this time period, the same as Appendix Three (but for a different time period), and is also numbered in such as way as to facilitate mathematical calculations in relation to chronological references. [Available in the full version]

12.    Chronologies of Josephus  104 BCE to 1940 BCE  Like The Charts in Appendix Three and Eleven, this chart is numbered to facilitate calculations, BUT contains the 'complete' calendar (104 BCE  to 1940 BCE) listed only by years (no dates and months).  All calculations require taking into account the year 586 BCE which is Line "O" (as per the idea of the failure to provide for a year 'nought' in the Julian Calendar).  This chart Graphically demonstrates the applications of Josephus' Chronological Data as it was meant to be applied. [ Access requires a password  - please email Mr. R.P. BenDedek to obtain a password ]

13.   Synchronous Scriptural References This file lists the various pieces of synchronous and other chronological data and their relevant Biblical References, and is provided to make it easier for readers to check the 'King's Calendar' placement of the various reigns. [Available in the full version]

14.    Current Chronology of Assyrian and Babylonian Kings.  A chronological chart listing the successive Assyrian and Babylonian Kings that reigned during the Divided Kingdom period of Israel's history. [Available in the full version]

15.    430 year Sojourn.   For those wishing to explore a 430 year sojourn, this chart extends Appendix Twelve. [Available in the full version]

16.    Experiment in Daniel.  This Appendix explores the possibility that the 490 year prophecy of Daniel, may have been appropriated from 'Essene' material, and incorrectly understood.  The Last Seven years of the prophecy (Simon Maccabees) have been confused with events Twenty-Five years earlier during the life of Judas Maccabees. [Available in the full version]

17.    From the Flood to Moses.    This Chart displays the 292 years between the mythical flood and the birth of Abraham, and continues on to the Birth of Moses.  It records the year in which each person was born, as well as the age of their fathers. [Available in the full version]

18.    New Egyptian Chronology.        This is a brief discourse on the affect on the ‘Kings’ Calendar’ of the New Chronologies being offered by those who see the need to revise the Sothic Dating system. [Available in the full version]

19.    April 17th, 586 BCE.        This Appendix looks at the relationship between Jeremiah 52:12 and 2 Kings 25:8 in relation to the date for the Burning of the Temple as introduced in Chapter Two. [Available in the full version]




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